For Amelia Earhart, it’s Happy Birthday No. 122!

It’s late July again, when thousands of the uninformed flock to Atchison, Kansas for the annual Amelia Earhart Festival, where the “Great Aviation Mystery” is renewed and celebrated.  The only questions the sheeple ask are whether Amelia’s Electra 10E crashed and sank off Howland Island or landed on Nikumaroro, where she starved to death, along with navigator Fred Noonan, on an atoll teeming with natural food and water sources.  

I sometimes imagine that some of the benighted at these Atchison shindigs actually hope that, just maybe, she’s still flying around out there in the timeless ether, searching endlessly for a way back to 1937 America — an eternal, romantic enigma without solution.  That may be an exaggeration, but it’s no stretch to say that wherever PC and groupthink predominate, as in Atchison, the hated truth is assiduously avoided, and can be found only in the darkest corners, where vile conspiracy theorists speak in hushed tones about the despised “Japanese Capture Theory” that so intimidates all but the boldest Earhart truth seekers.   

Once again we’ve reached another Earhart birthday, this one Amelia’s 122nd.  It’s hard to say how long America’s First Lady of Flight might have lived had her remarkable life not been so cruelly stolen from her by a wretched combination of circumstances that have yet to be fully understood, but I can’t imagine Amelia would still be with us at 122, though she would have given it her best shot, you can be sure.

Amelia came from hardy genes indeed, if her mother and sister were any indications.  Grace Muriel Earhart Morrissey, of West Medford, Massachusetts, two-and-a-half-years younger than Amelia, died in her sleep on March 2, 1998 at the age of 98.  Amy Otis Earhart, Amelia’s mother, was born in 1869 and died in 1962 at 93.

As is usually the case when Amelia’s birthday rolls around, the only Earhart-related news in America is about plans for more TV productions, more deceitful documentaries and specials by the true conspiracy theorists, who have only one goal in mind, besides ratings and dollars, of course, and that is to keep the same kind of gullible people who yearly flock to Atchison clueless about the truth.  I will spare you the boring and meaningless details, which will be known and forgotten soon enough.

Amelia at 10.  Even as a child, she had the look of someone destined for greatness, or is it just my imagination?  In this photo, she seems to be gazing at events far away in time and space.  But could she ever have imagined the wretched accident of fate that ended her life on earth?  Who can fathom it?

Amelia Mary Earhart was born in Atchison, Kansas on July 24, 1897 to Amy Otis and Edwin Stanton Earhart.  Edwin, an itinerant lawyer and faithful husband, was alsoa drunkard, according to biographer Mary Lovell (The Sound of Wings, 1989), but Amelia’s childhood was nonetheless nearly idyllic. 

Alfred Otis, Amy’s father, was a wealthy judge, and it was hard on the banks of the Missouri River in the home of Judge Otis and her grandmother, Amelia Josephine Harres, that Amelia came into the world.

Growing up in nearby Kansas City, Kansas, Amelia’s adventurous persona manifested early.  Amelia (Meelie), and Muriel, or “Pidge” were close, lived in reasonable comfort, unaware of any financial constraints” and were secure and happy despite occasional problems resulting from their father’s uneven professional life.

As we see in the early pages of another fine biography, Amelia, My Courageous Sister (1987), by Muriel Earhart Morrissey and Carol L. Osborne, Amelia was a consummate tomboy.  At 7 she rode an elephant at the 1904 St. Louis World’s Fair and was fascinated by the small cars that sped around an aerial track, though her mother said it was too dangerous for little girls to ride them.  Soon after the family returned home, Amelia enlisted her uncle Carl Otis to help her, Muriel and the boy next door build a makeshift roller coaster in their back yard, with its starting point at the top of the tool shed, eight-feet high.

When all the sawing and nailing of boards and tracks was complete, Amelia stuffed herself into a wooden crate for the first ride.As it careened down the track, Muriel recalled, we heard the sound of splintering wood.  The car and Amelia departed the track when the car hit the trestle.  Both tumbled onto the ground. Amelia jumped up, her eyes alight, ignoring a torn dress and bruised lip. ‘Oh, Pidge’ she exclaimed, ‘it’s just like flying!’ ”

Amelia wasn’t moved when she saw her first airplane at the 1907 Iowa State Fair, in Des Moines, recalling it as a thing of rusty wire and wood and looked not at all interesting.  At 9, Edwin presented her with a .22 rifle so she could clear the barn of rats, much to the consternation of her well-to-do grandparents.  “Don’t worry, Mother Otis,” Edwin told her grandmother.  “This is really a very small rifle.” Describing their beloved father many years later, Muriel called him “loving, generous, impractical.”

For more on Amelia’s happy youth and the events that to her fateful meeting with Neta Snook, her first flight instructor, please see Chapter I, “Birth of a Legend,” pages 5-19 in Amelia Earhart: The Truth at Last.

Back to the present, and a final observation.  I find it greatly ironic that for the past two years the only significant news in the Earhart case has come from Saipan, where Amelia and Fred Noonan suffered and died so ignominiously.  Here, as well, is our last living link to Amelia, 86-year-old Marie S. Castro, president of the Amelia Earhart Memorial Monument Committee, who daily wages a losing battle in her campaign to erect a memorial monument to the doomed fliers.  If not for this blog and the two Saipan newspapers, not a soul in the United States would know about Marie and her quest to properly honor and commemorate the hapless duo at the site of their murders.  For this sorry state of affairs we can thank our corrupt media, of course, which continues to dutifully cover up the truth in the Earhart saga, like the mindless, heartless little soldiers they are.

The uninformed, incurious and ultra-propagandized Saipan populace is either strongly against the Earhart Memorial Monument (see top right of this page for the architect’s model) or hopelessly indifferent.  The former faction includes most of Saipan’s politicians, who can also be relied upon to bend to the popular wind, currently blowing stiffly in the wrong direction.  Marie often finds herself surrounded by smiling faces who assure her of their support, but those who sincerely care are far too few, and as things look now and for the foreseeable future, it will require divine intervention before we ever see the Earhart Memorial Monument on Saipan.  I sincerely hope I’m wrong, and will gladly admit it if the sentiment on Saipan ever turns in Amelia’s favor.  

I’ve written plenty about Marie Castro’s work and will continue to do so.  Although the Marianas Variety and Saipan Tribune have supported the AEMMI movement to varying degrees, fundraising from the United States has been very disappointing, and from Saipan it’s been far worse.  Please see the Media Page of this blog for links to the newspaper stories; and for a complete list of all the posts I’ve done here since the institution of the AEMMI, please click here.

In any event, Happy Birthday, Amelia!

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13 responses

  1. David Atchison | Reply

    Happy Birthday, Amelia! Once again I miss the gathering in Atchison, Kansas. I always think I may be distantly related to the David Atchison the town was named after, it was my great-grandfather who changed the spelling of our name to Atchason for some obscure reason maybe about 1890.

    So, reading your last blog with Calvin’s comments and your revelation that the official Itasca log may not be so official after all, I made some connections.

    About 2 weeks ago I went to a book club meeting here in Bartlett, NH and curiously the book (picked by a male friend of mine) was “Area 51″ by Annie Jacobsen. Needless to say, his choice was not a smash hit among the little old ladies. The book club meeting took place at our library so I checked the book out. Also, by some chance, in attendance was a gentleman who said he had worked at Area 51, but he could not talk about his experience there, so he couldn’t comment on the activities described in the book. Later I said to John, not altogether joking, that the CIA is always watching. Then I went on to initiate some comments about Amelia Earhart to him at which point he indicated he had to hurry home, and so much for that conversation.

    So I launched into reading the book. It is long and has a wealth of fine details. It is not a book that held me in its grip, in fact I found it easier to put down than pick up. What I learned though was that the U2 spyplane development and its successor were developed under the leadership of Kelly Johnson of Lockheed fame. I was surprised how advanced the U2 and its even more amazing successor were even in the 50s and early 60s. Speeds of MAch 3 ( faster than a rifle bullet) were attained. Then I made a connection. When it came time to develop a spy plane (the U2) in the 50s who was the obvious choice for the job but Kelly Johnson and Lockheed who had previous experience in the famous case of Amelia Earhart. To me this was just one more link in my chain of evidence that Amelia was conned into doing a spy flight.

    This theory makes far more sense than any other, to me at least. I have never found a shred of evidence that the flight was anything but a spy mission. They got away with the U2 for quite a while even though the Russians noticed it on its first flight. The planning for Amelia’s flight was botched. I’m speculating that when the overflight of Truk went OK she was given the go-ahead to fly over the Marshalls expecting no trouble. But unexpectedly some Japanese fighter planes turned up and she was forced to land. At first, I think, the JAps were unsure what she was up to and perhaps she was welcomed, more or less. But later it became crystal clear what she was doing and examination of the plane showed advanced technology so the Japs had to take it to Saipan and reverse engineer it. Probably today the advanced features would seem old fashioned but we don’t really know what they were. Seeing as how Admiral Kimmel and his Army counterpart were blamed for the Pearl Harbor”debacle” why not make innuendos about the “poor performance” of the Itasca’s captain, and Amelia’s “incompetence.”

    I think the scheme was elaborate enough so that the Navy played recordings of Amelia, the Itasca’s logs were doctored, all those supposed critical messages she sent were just meaningless as was intended. Her post loss transmissions could also be recordings or the Japs made her send them to see what the Americans would do, the possibilities are endless. But things like reversing the direction of the flight for obviously no plausible reason and other details makes a convincing case for me that the spying theory fits like a glove.

    Was it Goebbels who supposedly said something like, “If you make up a big enough lie and repeat it often enough, people will believe it.” Yes, in Amelia’s case this is true. The constant bombardment of the lies makes most people very fearful about contemplating the truth. It works like a charm.

    Liked by 1 person

    1. William H. Trail | Reply

      David,

      Just last night I watched a 2-hr program I’d recorded a week or so ago about Lockheed’s “Skunk Works,” Kelly Johnson, and the U-2 and SR-71 aircraft. Annie Jacobsen was a featured commentator as both aircraft were flight tested at Area 51.

      While a graduate student, Clarence Leonard “Kelly” Johnson assisted in the tests of Lockheed’s Model 10 in the University of Michigan’s wind tunnel. He determined that, as designed, the Model 10 lacked stability. The professor Johnson was assisting disagreed. Later in 1933, Johnson was hired by Lockheed at $83.00 a month as a tool designer. It was in that capacity of a newly hired, just out-of-school aeronautical engineer working as a tool designer to get his foot in the door that Kelly Johnson approached the Model 10’s chief engineer, Hall L. Hibbard and made his claim about the aircraft’s stability. Needless to say, Hibbard was not amused and was ready to have Johnson fired. Hibbard began grilling Johnson who answered every tough question thrown at him. In the end Hibbard was impressed, got Johnson promoted to aeronautical engineer, and sent him back to the University of Michigan to do more wind tunnel tests on the Model 10. Long story short, the end result was a re-design of the empennage with the now classic “twin-tail,” and the aircraft we recognize as the “Electra.”

      Tempting as it might be to think so given his much later work on Lockheed’s purpose-built U-2 and SR-71 reconnaissance aircraft, Kelly Johnson did NOT turn the Lockheed 10 Electra into a reconnaissance aircraft for Amelia Earhart to conduct a “spy mission” over the Japanese Mandates for the U.S. Government. Kelly Johnson just made the Model 10 flyable, and very probably saved a lot of lives, and Lockheed, in the process.

      By the way, I have Annie Jacobsen’s “Area 51.” I’m reading it now and don’t think it’s bad at all.

      All best,

      William

      Liked by 1 person

      1. David Atchison

        William,

        I’m not a TV watcher, I only know how to tune in to The History Channel. I don’t even know how to record a program on TV, although I suppose if it were important enough to me, I would learn. So I am impressed that there was a program about Kelly Johnson that I knew nothing about and you were aware of it.

        I have no evidence that Amelia was spying. My reasoning is only “If it walks like a duck and quacks like a duck it probably is a duck.” With all due respect, I don’t think you have any evidence she wasn’t spying. The trouble is, I think, that those of us that firmly believe in the “Japanese Capture” hypothesis dare not claim she was spying because it would sound too far out to our politely listening audiences. I still believe there has to be much more to her flight than the case that the silly pair simply got themselves lost.

        From the photos we all have seen, it appears she flew the same plane from Lae that she crashed in Hawaii. So there were probably few or no modifications to the exterior. Installing cameras and maybe sophisticated radio receivers come to my mind as possibilities so really it would not take an aeronautical genius to fit out her plane for a spy mission. But I began to wonder, how was it that Kelly Johnson and Lockheed got the U2 contract? Was it bid on? Or was it because Kelly Johnson was experienced at clandestine projects such as Amelia’s flight? A man who could be trusted to run an operation for the CIA that would create great embarrassment if the purpose was discovered? I just don’t think it was simply a low bid from Lockheed. However, this is all pure speculation, I’ve gone on long enough.

        Speaking of archaeologists, whatever happened to Tom King, one of Ric’s leading accomplices for a while? Is he still with us? Who is financing Ballard? The National Geographic? I remember Ric’s submersibles cost a lot of money, this new search sounds like it will cost a fortune, I don’t see the point of it. I’ll just add it to the many other mysteries of her flight.

        I just noticed in a Wikipedia article that the airbase for B-24s was built on Baker Island for the purpose of bombing Mili Atoll. So obviously if Howland was unsuitable for Amelia’s take off they could have used Baker. But they didn’t. Also what was so important on Mili that they had to build a special airbase to bomb it?

        All Best,

        Dave

        Liked by 1 person

  2. It boggles my mind that after 82 years, the public and the press are not questioning why files pertaining to Amelia’s flight are still sealed by the government and, those that have been released, are so heavily redacted. I believe we have a very good perspective on what actually occurred thanks to your tenacity and relentless pursuit of the truth.

    I can only assume that the numerous eyewitness accounts, expert analyses, radio transmissions days later and even postage stamps issued commemorating her crash-landing and retrieval are looked at as fantasy by this (scripted) reality show world we live in. Keep going, Mike, as there are a number of us who wish to see the day that the truth is revealed. (Crackpot conspirators that we are!)

    Liked by 1 person

  3. Happy Birthday Amelia! Still remembered and still admired by those who know the truth about you and Fred, true American heroes.

    Liked by 1 person

  4. Mike says: “As is usually the case when Amelia’s birthday rolls around, the only Earhart-related news in America is about plans for more TV productions, more deceitful documentaries and specials by the true conspiracy theorists,..”

    Mike, you’re spot on. Here is the latest Tighar press release regarding their good buddies at National Geographic.

    From Tighar:
    “On July 23, 2019 National Geographic announced that Bob Ballard, finder of the Titanic, will try to find the Earhart aircraft at Nikumaroro. You can read the full press release here.

    Prior to TIGHAR’s 2012 expedition, Dr. Ballard described his views on the search for the Earhart plane and wished TIGHAR “fair winds, a following sea, and a little luck” (see video below). We sincerely wish him the same. TIGHAR will not be officially participating in the expedition but we have reached an agreement with National Geographic for TIGHAR’s assistance in the production of the two-hour television special “Expedition Amelia.” All news about the expedition will come from National Geographic. We will, of course, keep TIGHAR members informed about our continuing Earhart research.”

    Les Kinney

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Les,
      Thanks for enlightening us on yet another new disinformation drill, this time from the “reputable” Bob Ballard and National Geographic. Ballard is on somebody’s payroll, isn’t he?

      The rats at Coast to Coast AM, never friends of the truth, are supporting this scam. Here’s their new story, as of July 24:

      I didn’t even know about this one until your comment tonight, but about 10 days ago a Travel Channel producer sent me an email that announced a “new Travel Channel documentary series using new technology to re-examining ancient mysteries. One of the stories we are looking into is Amelia Earhart. Can new bone analysis and video forensics provide more information to this story?”

      This appears to be another installation of the Dr. Jantz bogus “99 percent certainty” lies about the bones found on Niku (early ’40s?) analyzed by Dr. Hoodless as male, then lost forever, and then “reevaluated” by selected TIGHAR stooges to keep the scam alive. The Travel Channel guy is so clueless about the Earhart case that he thought I might be interested in talking on air about “the last flight” or some such crap. He never replied after I sent him my position statement, and told him that if he wouldn’t allow me to talk about it on the air, then I wasn’t interested. So that’s two more TIGHAR propaganda pieces in the works.

      Les, they have nothing else except this long debunked garbage to put out there to counter the truth, but here they go again anyway. Even most of the brain dead no longer buy this rotten cargo, but it does show us one thing that’s very obvious: The powers that be are still concerned about keeping the Earhart truth from the public, and we are no closer to government disclosure than we ever were. That certainty is not comforting.

      Mike

      Liked by 1 person

  5. A very Happy Birthday to AE, one of two of my most favorite aviators from a generation long-gone but never, ever to be forgotten. That was my own father’s generation, WWII South Pacific vet, which allows me, now 85, to offer up the most generous of praise.

    One cherishes the hundreds of hours of reading and research which have been spent with Amelia. I was 4 when she graced our skies with a dream seldom realized by women. Due to the friendship of several of her personal friends and fellow-aviators, it has become an alter-reality to touch the skies which touched her soul. It is one of life’s greatest gifts to a another flyer who has also had a love-affair with her sky.

    Happy Birthday Amelia, a friend-through-your-friends. My life has been changed because of your faith and perseverance. I bow my head in appreciation.

    … Calvin Pitts, pilot of the Spirit of Winnie Mae, 1981, which crossed many of AE’s flight paths from India to Indonesia to Australia to New Guinea to Tarawa … and to the shadow of Howland.

    Like

  6. Happy Birthday *Amelia, I’m making LOTS of Electra, balsa wood planes for You & Fred.
    The one I tested tonight, in my back yard, flew straight as an arrow!

    Doug

    Liked by 1 person

  7. David Atchison | Reply

    I was wondering why Bob Ballard was getting lured into this Nikumaroro fiasco. He seems like he must be a pretty smart guy, how can he possibly believe Gillespie’s nonsense? Well, maybe he doesn’t believe it. But he’ll get a good paycheck out of it, things have been a little slow in his line of work lately. Nobody cares much anymore about 2-3,000 year old Greek wrecks. Is there a giant conspiracy led by FDR Democrats to conceal the truth? I think probably not, although the conspiracy does exist. It is led by the mainstream media because as you have said, maybe in reference to the History Channel, it’s fundamentally ENTERTAINMENT.

    Anybody with any crackpot theory can make a few bucks, maybe like Gillespie, make a living out of it. Why kill the golden goose with the Truth? The real story is just depressing. Poor Amelia and Putnam after the crash have run out of money to finance their stunt which is hardly ground-breaking. So the War faction with FDR’s hearty approval decide to offer her financing if she will do a little favor and fly over Truk and The Marshalls with the latest aerial cameras. The planning is stupid, the stunt goes horribly wrong, she is forced down and captured, and particularly in order to prevent the Japs from learning we have broken a lot of their code she is completely abandoned by the USA. Now if the public learned we knew their code the public would know that FDR knew full well in advance of the Japanese Pearl Harbor attack.

    There was a lot of opposition to the new war back in 1937 and it wasn’t a sure thing that FDR would get re-elected in 1940. So we would learn that AE lived on in misery for a few years in a tiny cell in Garapan prison where she was severely tortured and FDR didn’t lift a finger. That’s not the kind of heart warming story we want on Discovery Channel is it? So if you can’t lick them, join them. Let’s just enjoy Ballard’s faux search and entertain our friends by discussing how excited we are by the latest news from Nikumaroro. Maybe they will listen to us for a change and we can tell them we are reformed conspiracy theorists and we can once again be accepted by our neighbors and acquaintances back into polite society. There, I fixed it.

    Liked by 1 person

    1. William H. Trail | Reply

      David,

      My apologies for the somewhat delayed response to your comments. Things have been just a little hectic lately.

      I agree about Dr. Ballard. He’s far too savvy and way too intelligent to buy into TIGHAR’s Niku stuff.

      Where you and I disagree is with the photo recon mission over Truk. I don’t see that as plausible for two major reasons. First, it involves too much effort, and way too much risk for too little possible reward. It’s a mission that could have been thwarted by a passing cloud. There was also the very real possibility AE would be flying into a very high threat air defense environment and be shot down. Second, had AE’s Electra been equipped with cameras suitable for photo reconnaissance and captured with all that aboard, the diplomatic blowback from the Japanese would have been extremely embarrassing to FDR. There would have been no “plausible deniability.”

      The Japanese would have put the Electra’s wreckage and the cameras on display for the whole world to see. It would have been a tremendous propaganda coup the Japanese couldn’t have resisted and quite possibly would have caused, in addition to great international embarrassment for the United States, such domestic political fallout as to cost FDR the upcoming 1940 presidential election. Look what the Soviets did 23 years later when Gary Francis Powers’ U-2 was shot out of the sky by a SA-2 surface-to-air missile on 1 May 1960 over Sverdlovsk Oblast. And, keep in mind that the ONLY reason the Eisenhower administration authorized direct overflights of Soviet territory at all is because, based on the best intelligence available, the Kelly Johnson-designed Lockheed U-2 was thought to be invisible to Soviet ground based radar at altitude (it wasn’t) and basically invulnerable to all of their known air defenses. It was deemed worth the risk.

      So, if Amelia Earhart and Fred Noonan weren’t flying a high speed, high risk photo recon mission over Truk, just what was it that brought them and the Electra down on Barre Island, Mili Atoll in the Japanese Mandated Marshall Islands? When there were many other closer, non-hostile alternatives within their range such as the British controlled Gilberts, landing on Mili in a hostile, denied area seems rather a deliberate act, doesn’t it? Why? I don’t believe for a second that they were simply “lost.” Frederick J. Noonan was too good for that. And, they sure didn’t do it just for the hell of it. No, there has to be a simple, reasonable, and rational answer.

      Something practical, do-able, and with few moving parts to go wrong (think Occam’s Razor). Remember, “Murphy” always tags along on the manifest. I have my own thoughts on the matter. All I’ll say is that I believe that Captain Laurance Frye Safford, USN was deeply involved, if not the mastermind, and that all others who were fully “read-on” to the plan, and there were maybe only a handful of them, assumed that the Japanese would send Amelia Earhart and Fred Noonan home safe and sound. The only problem is, the Japanese didn’t act according to the plan. Just my thoughts.

      All best,

      William

      Liked by 1 person

  8. David Atchison | Reply

    William,

    I’m glad we agree that her landing on Mili had to be intentional. After that, I don’t know what to think. It seems like the Navy didn’t order her to do that and what there was to be gained by her landing there I just don’t have a clue. There seems to be no record of the Japanese contacting the U.S. about the matter, apparently we found out by listening to coded diplomatic messages. Maybe the Japs didn’t want to risk the American fleet to come searching their mandated territories. THe U.S. couldn’t do that without tipping the Japs off we had their code. What do you think Safford or others were up to?

    All Best,

    David

    Liked by 1 person

    1. William H. Trail | Reply

      David,

      As we are agreed that the U.S. government provided a large degree of support to Amelia Earhart’s round-the-world flight, and that AE and FN intentionally diverted to and deliberately landed in the Japanese Mandated Marshall Islands, we now have to sort out the real reason for them to do so. They weren’t lost, and they weren’t conducting a photo recon. All I’ll say is that I believe Captain Laurance Frye Safford, USN was deeply involved. Anything beyond that would be pure speculation. And, as you so aptly put it, we don’t have evidence. Well, at least not a “smoking gun.” The devil is in the details as they say. The final truth of the matter will be found in the myriad of small, seemingly insignificant details. One that has always intrigued me is why would AE so quickly decline PAA Pacific Division’s offer to track her flight across the lonely vastness of the Pacific with their Radio Direction Finding (DF) network. Turning that down doesn’t make much sense, does it? That is, unless you didn’t want PAA to know where you are, or where you will end up.

      While we all ponder the possible reasons for Amelia Earhart’s intentional diversion to and landing in the Japanese Mandates, here’s something else for your consideration.

      Konoe Fumimaro became the Prime Minister of Imperial Japan on 4 June 1937, three days after AE and FN took off from Miami. Nineteen years earlier (with the end of WWI in 1918), Fumimaro published an essay entitled, “Reject The Anglo-American-Centered Peace.” He then lobbied to get himself appointed to the Japanese delegation to the Paris Peace Conference at Versailles. There (in 1919), Fumimaro was one of the Japanese diplomats who proposed the Racial Equality Proposal for the Covenant to the League of Nations. Although a number of nations (Japan, France, Serbia, Greece, Italy, Brazil, Czechoslovakia, and China) voted for Japan’s proposal, U.S. President Woodrow Wilson overturned the vote, declaring that the vote must be unanimous. Konoe Fumimaro held a grudge against Wilson and the United States, and resented “white people” for what he considered a humiliation of Japan. I wonder how much of this personal animus played directly into the decision to hold AE and FN on Saipan, not disclose their whereabouts to the U.S., and ultimately murder them? Surely, as Prime Minister, Fumimaro weighed in heavily and was most likely the final authority on the matter.

      All best,

      William

      Liked by 1 person

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