Tag Archives: Gen. Alexander A. Vandegrift

Goerner’s “In Search of Amelia Earhart” Conclusion

In the final installment of Fred Goerner’s 1984 retrospective, “In Search of Amelia Earhart,” the former San Francisco radio newsman presents an excellent summary of the status of the Earhart investigation at that point in time, tracing the important discoveries since his Saipan investigations began in 1960. 

His essay, ostensibly written for Orbis Publishing Ltd., a British company, but never published in the United States, explores the roots of the Marshall Islands landing scenario; the origins of the theories that proliferated in the days following Amelia’s loss; his original interviews with the native witnesses in the Marshall Islands and Saipan; and for the first time, the stunning revelations by Marine Generals Alexander A. Vandegrift and Graves Erskine that placed Amelia Earhart and Fred Noonan on Saipan in the days following their tragic disappearance.

Conclusion of Fred Goerner’s “In Search of Amelia Earhart”

There were rumors in 1937 that Earhart had somehow been working for the U.S. government at the time of her disappearance.  There were rumors, too, that she had purposefully lost herself so the U.S. Navy could search the Japanese controlled islands, or that she and Fred Noonan had been forced to land on or near one of those Japanese islands and they were being held prisoner.  The speculation was not taken seriously by the American public.

The Oakland Tribune newspaper in May 1938 began a series of articles about the Earhart disappearance by reporter Alfred Reck.  Somehow Reck had managed access to the then highly classified Coast Guard files.  In the first article, Reck alleged that Earhart and Noonan had been lost because of the failure of the U.S. Navy high-frequency direction finder on Howland Island, and that Richard B. Black, the U.S. Department of Interior representative who had brought the Navy HF/DF aboard Itasca, had supplied the wrong kind of batteries causing the equipment to fail at the moment it was needed the most.

It was on Howland Island that Black supervised construction of the air strip for Amelia Earhart’s scheduled refueling stop. Black was in the radioroom of the USCG Itasca as he listened to Earhart’s last known radio transmission indicating that she was low on fuel and was searching for Howland island.

Department of the Interior official Richard B. Black supervised construction of the airstrip on Howland Island for Amelia Earhart’s scheduled refueling stop.  He’s been blamed for the failure of the Navy’s high-frequency direction finder on Howland, and he was in the radio room of the USCG  Cutter Itasca during Earhart’s last official radio transmission, indicating that she was low on fuel and was searching for Howland island.

The U.S. Navy, Coast Guard and Richard Black jumped all over the Oakland Tribune and reporter Reck, and the rest of the articles in the series were carefully censored.

Again in 1938, popular Smith’s Weekly newspaper, published in Sydney, Australia, printed a lengthy article alleging that the U.S. had used the Earhart disappearance as a pretext to overfly Japanese held islands and that Australia’s defense establishment had been made aware of the plan and its results:  “So when Amelia Earhart went down and her faint distress signals located her plane around the Phoenix Islands, the search gave the needed excuse.  Sentiment comes second to secret service.”

Isolationist Republican U.S. Senator from North Dakota Gerald P. Nye was incensed by the report.  He had long suspected that President Roosevelt was trying to get the U.S. involved in a war with Japan, and he announced his intention of bringing the whole Earhart matter before the U.S. Senate.

Adm. William D. Leahy, chief of U.S. naval operations, and Cordell Hull, U.S. secretary of state both wrote to Senator Nye denying the charges.  Nye accepted the denials but pledged to make every effort to determine the source of the article because the primary motive may have been to stimulate ill feeling between Japan and the United States.“ 

The Japanese sinking of the American Navy gunboat USS Panay in the Yangtze River two months later effectively buried Nye’s concern.  Ill feeling had become outright hostility.

U.S. Congressman William I. Sirovich one day dropped by to see his friend Claude A. Swanson, who was secretary of the U.S. Navy. Sirovich, curious about the seeming mystery surrounding the Earhart disappearance, asked Swanson for his feelings about the matter.

This is a powder keg,” replied Swanson.  “Any public discussion of it will cause an explosion.  I’m not the only one in this department who feels that she saw activities which she could not have described later and remained alive.  To speculate about this publicly probably would sever our diplomatic relations with Japan and lead to something worse.”

The something worsecame on the wings of Japanese carrier aircraft the morning of Dec. 7, 1941, and Amelia Earhart was virtually forgotten.

Secretary of the Navy Claude A. Swanson, President Franklin Roosevelt, and Ambassador Josephus Daniels aboard USS Indianapolis, May 31, 1934.

Secretary of the Navy Claude A. Swanson (left), President Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Ambassador Josephus Daniels aboard the Portland-class cruiser USS Indianapolis, May 31, 1934.  Did Swanson know more about Amelia Earhart’s fate than he ever revealed publicly?

In April of 1943, however, RKO Motion Pictures released a film titled Flight For Freedom (starring Rosalind Russell and Fred MacMurray) which followed the events of Amelia’s last flight almost perfectly to the point of the Lae, New Guinea takeoff.  According to the script, the aviatrix, on a mission for the U.S. government, was to fly to a “Gull” Island in the Pacific and pretend to be lost while U.S. Navy planes, ostensibly searching for her, photographed the Japanese Mandates.  At Lae, New Guinea, however, the script writer had the heroine learn the Japanese were aware of the ruse and would immediately pick her up at “Gull” Island.  Thereupon Rosalind Russell courageously crashed her plane at sea so the U.S. Navy could conduct its intelligence operation anyway.  Amelia Earhart’s name was never used in the film, but the plot left no doubt that she was intended as the central character.

This film undoubtedly had an impact on many American servicemen who were preparing for or already participating in combat in the Pacific theater.  It might explain many strange — often bizarre — rumors during the island invasions.  At one point a rumor that Amelia Earhart might actually be the infamous Tokyo Rosebroadcasting from Japan caused U.S. Army Intelligence to send George Palmer Putnam, Amelia’s now remarried husband, to a radio station in China where he could clearly hear the broadcaster’s voice.  He vowed it was not Amelia.  Post-war investigation proved him right.

There were other happenings that could not be explained as easily.  In 1944 on Majuro Atoll during the invasion of the Marshall Islands, Vice Adm. Edgar A. Cruise learned from a native interpreter named Michael Madison that an American man and woman flyers had been picked up and brought into the Marshalls in 1937.

At almost the same time, Eugene F. Bogan, serving as a senior military government officer at Majuro (Bogan is now one of America’s leading tax attorneys in Washington, D.C.) interviewed a Marshallese native named Elieu Jibambam, who told the same story.

Four other U.S. Marine corps and U.S. Navy Officers turned up similar information: An American man and woman, flyers according to the Japanese, had been brought into Jaluit in the Marshalls, then transported to Majuro and Kwajalein, also in the Marshalls, and finally, taken to Saipan in the Marianas Islands which was Japan’s military headquarters for the Pacific islands before and during World War II.  They all filed reports which still remain classified somewhere in military archives.

The 1943 Hollywood film Flight for Freedom, starring Rosalind Russell as Tony Carter, who many are convinced was a thinly disguised Amelia Earhart,

The 1943 Hollywood film Flight for Freedom, starring Rosalind Russell as Tony Carter, a thinly disguised Amelia Earhart, has been blamed by some for inspiring the false “conspiracy theory” that the fliers were taken to Saipan or landed there as part of a U.S. government plot.  The facts, as attested to dozens of native and GI witnesses, tell us that Amelia Earhart and Fred Noonan were indeed on Saipan, where they met their tragic deaths, and had nothing to do with Flight for Freedom.

During the invasion of Saipan in June 1944, the possibility of Japanese capture of Earhart broadened with testimony of Saipanese natives that two Americans, a man and woman, identified by the Japanese as fliers had been brought to the island in 1937 and detained.  The woman had died of dysentery and the man reportedly had been executed sometime after her death.  They had, according to the testimony, been buried in unmarked graves outside the perimeter of a native cemetery.

(Editor’s comment: Note that in 1984, the 26 former American GIs who contacted Thomas E. Devine after publication of his book, Eyewitness: The Amelia Earhart Incident, in 1987, and whose accounts were presented in our 2002 book, With Our Own Eyes, were completely unknown to Goerner.  These former Marines included Robert E. Wallack and Earskin J. Nabers, two of the most important eyewitnesses in the Earhart saga.)

It would be 1964 before two former U.S. Marines, Everett Henson, Jr. of Sacramento, California, and Bill G. Burks of Dallas, would come forward to say they were part of a group of Marines who recovered the remains of Amelia Earhart and Frederick Noonan on Saipan in July of 1944.  The remains had been found in an unmarked grave outside a small graveyard and placed in metal canisters for transport to the United States.  To this writing, the U.S. Marine Corps will neither confirm or deny that such an event occurred.

Just after the end of World War II, early in 1946, the U.S. Navy reiterated that Amelia Earhart and Fred Noonan were considered and had always been considered merely civilians on a pioneering flight.  They were still to be consideredlost at sea.“ 

It would not be until 1960 that a real investigation began, and that investigation would be civilian.  The Columbia Broadcasting System sponsored four expeditions to Saipan Island and two to Majuro atoll in the Marshall Islands to try to find answers to the Earhart mystery.

Robert Wallack recounts his remarkable experience on Saipan in 1944 as he reviews a map of the island for an with at his dining room table in Woodbridge, Conn., in 1990 shortly before his appearance on Unsolved Mysteries with Robert Stack. (Photo courtesy Michael O'Brien.)

Robert E. Wallack, who found Amelia Earhart’s briefcase in a blown Japanese safe on Saipan in July 1944, recalls his remarkable experience as he reviews a map of the island at his home in Woodbridge, Conn.,  shortly before his 1990 appearance on Unsolved Mysteries with Robert Stack. (Photo courtesy Michael O’Brien.)

The effort spanned the years 1960 to 1964, and your author was selected by CBS to conduct the inquiry. I was working as a correspondent-broadcaster at that time for KCBS in San Francisco.  Several hundred natives were questioned on Saipan with the help of the Monsignor and Fathers of the Catholic Church Mission.  More than 30 individuals told stories that supported the theory that two American fliers, a man and woman, had lived and died on Saipan before the war.

At Majuro, we found the persons who had given information during World War II, and we found others as well.  Dr. John Iman, Biliman Amran [sic, more commonly Bilimon Amaron], Tomaki Mayazo, all would tell stories of the man and woman American fliers.  Amran had worked at the Japanese hospital, and he had been called to tend the Americans who had been brought in aboard a Japanese ship.  It was the man who needed treatment. He had been cut on the head and on the knee. “He spoke something in English to me,” Amran says, “but at that time I only spoke Japanese.”

I had told him that something“ in connection with Earhart had been found on one of the islands during World War II, but he had not been greatly impressed because of the pressures of ongoing battle.

(Editor’s note: Unaccountably, here Goerner failed to mention the statement he claimed Nimitz made to him on the phone in late March 1965: “Now that you’re going to Washington, Fred, I want to tell you that Earhart and her navigator did go down in the Marshalls and were picked up by the Japanese.”)

Later Admiral Nimitz became vitally interested in the Earhart questions, providing suggestions for further research and attempting to help with access to classified information.  Before his death in 1966, Nimitz advised, “Never give up. You are on to something that will stagger your imagination.”

Classis portrait of Fleet Adm. Chester W. Nimitz, the Navy's last five-star admiral and a important figure in the Earhart saga. Nimitz's words to Fred Goerner in March 1965 became legendary among Earhart researchers as well as the American public in the mid-1960s. Sadly. Nimitz and Goerner's contributions to the truth in the Earhart search are all but forgotten.

Classic portrait of Fleet Adm. Chester W. Nimitz, the Navy’s last five-star admiral and an important figure in the Earhart saga. Nimitz’s words to Fred Goerner in March 1965 became legendary among Earhart researchers as well as the American public.  Sadly, Nimitz and Goerner’s contributions to the truth in the Earhart search are all but forgotten in today’s social media culture of historical ignorance.

The same year, 1966, I wrote The Search for Amelia Earhart, which was published by Doubleday in the U.S. and Bodley Head Press, Ltd. in England.  It detailed the six years of CBS research and basically asked why the U.S. government still, nearly thirty years after the event, had not released the classified files in the case.

By good fortune the tome remained on the best sellers’ lists for many weeks, and a gratifying number of readers were motivated to write to their U.S. senators or congressmen, asking that truth for Earhart and Noonan finally be established.  At the time, there was little response.  It was not until the Freedom Of Information Act became law in 1968 that quite a number of files began to appear, and each year since more pertinent material has been found and declassified.

This would seem to be the right time to say that this author is a standard patriot. I am grateful for the freedoms I enjoy in America.  I would not willingly choose to live anywhere else, and I far more often compliment my country than criticize it.  Perhaps I may then be forgiven if I say that responsible search for truth could sometimes be eased by those charged with keeping secrets.

From 1968 to present day, well over 20,000 pages of records concerning the Earhart flight from seven different departments of the U.S. government and military have been released, and we are convinced there is a great deal more still to be revealed.

The idea for Earhart’s around-the-world flight had begun with an entity known as the Purdue Research Foundation at Purdue University in Lafayette, Indiana.  She had served the University for brief periods as a lecturer and counselor to women students.

The Foundation had been formed by David E. Ross of Lafayette, Ind., and J.K. Lilly of Indianapolis for the purpose of seeking “new knowledge in the field of aviation, with particular reference to National Defense,” and it (the Foundation) maintained close communication with the then U.S. War Department and U.S. Army Air Corps and U.S. naval aviation.

Ross, an enormously wealthy engineer and inventor, and Lilly, one of the founders and directors of Eli Lilly Company, provided the funds for the purchase of Amelia’s Lockheed Electra with the understanding that the plane would be usedfor the purpose of improving radio direction finding equipment.“ 

In 1937, America was still deeply in the grip of the great depression, and details of the transaction that involved what was then a considerable sum of money were not disclosed to anyone save the principals.

Wright Field, circa 1934, three years before Amelia Earhart flew her Electra there

Wright Field, circa 1934, three years before Amelia Earhart flew her Lockheed Electra there to have Fred Hooven’s “radio compass,” which he also called an “automatic direction finder,” installed.

Amelia flew the plane to Wright Field in Ohio to have the latest 500 kilocycles low-frequency direction finder, invented by Frederick Hooven for the Army Air Corps, installed in the Electra.  Later, the U.S. Navy and representatives of the Bendix Company would ask Amelia to jettison Hooven’s creation and use the Navy high-frequency DF.

President Franklin D. Roosevelt personally interested himself in the flight, directing the War, Navy, Army and State Departments to cooperate.  Enthusiasm was not unanimous.  One high-ranking Navy officer wrote in longhand on the margin of the directive, “Why are we doing this?  There isn’t that much to gain, and it’ll excite the Japs.”

What did excite the Japanese was construction of the airfield on Howland Island. Earhart first planned to fly the Pacific from east to west, being refueled in flight over Midway Island by a specially equipped U.S. Navy plane. Such techniques were in their infancy; therefore, the risk factor was very high.

Then Earhart and U.S. military needs coincided. Amelia needed a safer method for crossing the Pacific and the US Navy and US Army Air Corps needed a civilian reason to build an airfield on an island near the equator. America had agreed with Japan at the Washington Naval Treaty conference in 1923 that military construction on most Pacific islands controlled by each nation would be prohibited.  The U.S. had long believed that Japan was violating that treaty in the Mandated Islands, but could not prove it. The U.S. had countered on Midway and Wake Islands through cooperation with Pan American airways, and now Earhart would become the civilian reason or cover for Howland.  To further disguise the Howland venture, President Roosevelt diverted funds from the civilian Works Progress Administration, an obfuscation tactic he had used several times before.

From the records released to this writing, Earhart does not seem to have been conducting an overt spy mission during the world flight.  At one time we had thought that possible.  There is evidence and testimony that Earhart and Noonan were gathering “white intelligence.”  As civilians they were going to be visiting and flying in and out of places seldom if ever visited by the U.S. military, and observations of these areas could be valuable.  Of particular interest would be weather and radio conditions, length of runways, fuel supplies and repair facilities.  All valuable information in the event of conflict. After the end of World War I, the records indicate that many American civilians performed like services in many parts of the world.  Not clandestine and not at all unusual.

There is nothing in released records to date that would document Japanese capture of Earhart and Noonan, other than gathered testimony of Marshallese and Saipanese native witnesses  Nor is there anything which would substantiate the recovery of the human remains of Earhart and Noonan on Saipan in 1944 by the US Marines.

There is evidence that President Roosevelt and U.S. Naval Intelligence suspected that Amelia and Fred might have fallen into the hands of the Japanese.  The ONI (Office of Naval Intelligence) arranged with one Kilsoo Haan (an American working with the Korean Underground against the Japanese) in December of 1937 to sneak several of his agents into the Japanese mandated islands to determine whether Miss Earhart and Captain Noonan are alive or dead.“  The results of that intelligence mission still have not been found.

(Editor’s note: In a 1993 letter to J. Gordon Vaeth, Goerner wrote that the Kilsoo Haan mission fell through because the ONI did not have sufficient funds available for the operation.“  See p. 178 of Truth at Last for more.)

Kilsoo K. Haan, circa 1941. Dateline "Washington, May 27. SAYS JAPS WILL ATTACK U.S. Kilsoo K. Haan (above), Washington representative of the Korean National Front Federation and Sino-Korean Peoples' League. testified yesterday that Japan would attack the U.S. this summer/

Kilsoo Haan, circa May 1941. According to Fred Goerner, Haan  worked with the Office of Naval Intelligence in December 1937 to “sneak several of his agents into the Japanese mandated islands to determine whether Miss Earhart and Captain Noonan are alive or dead.”  The project failed, allegedly for lack of funding, Goerner later wrote. 

(Editor’s note: Here Goerner, who continued to reject Thomas E. Devine’s contributions to the Earhart saga, failed to mention the 1960 Office of Naval Intelligence Report of its investigation of Devine’s claim that he was shown the gravesite of Amelia Earhart and Fred Noonan on Saipan by an unidentified Okinawan woman in August 1945.  This report was declassified in 1967, has never been mentioned by any known media organizations, and is the closest thing we have to a smoking-gun document in the Earhart search.  For more on the ONI Report, see pages 95-100 in Truth at Last.)

Early in 1938, President Roosevelt arranged with his close friend and trusted intelligence agent William Vincent Astor to penetrate Japan’s Marshall Islands aboard Astor’s huge personal yacht Nourmahal.  Accompanied by FDR’s cousin Kermit Roosevelt, Astor took his ship into the Marshalls in April, 1938, a daring and highly dangerous exploit that infuriated the Japanese.  Astor and Kermit Roosevelt were not able to land on any of the islands, but they got close enough to find fuel supplies and air strips on Eniwetok and Wotje Islands and to predict to President Roosevelt that Japan was in the process of developing military bases and facilities in the Mandates.  From what has been released to date, they did not find out anything about Earhart and Noonan.

The Japanese protested vehemently to the U.S. State Department, and one Japanese press report indicated that the U.S. Navy had sent “warships” into the Marshalls and was forming a task force for an attack. Astor had caused a storm with Japan, but his mission was unknown in America.  He was but one of dozens of civilians that Roosevelt had used and would use as personal secret agents.

In the last several years, two Americans have come forward with information that indicates the Earhart saga is far from ended.  Thomas McKeon, vice president of Intertel, based in Washington, D.C., one of the world’s largest private intelligence networks, staffed by former ONI, FBI and CIA agents, has testified that the 441st U.S. Army Counter Intelligence Corps Unit discovered the complete truth regarding Japanese capture of Earhart of Noonan when it occupied the Japanese Kempeitai (Military Secret Police) headquarters in September of 1945 . McKeon says he read the files when he served as an officer with the 441st in Tokyo, and that at one point he talked with a former Japanese officer who had served as an interpreter when Earhart and Noonan had been questioned.

Carroll Harris of Sacramento, California, recently retired from his post as dispatcher for the California State Highway Patrol, a top law enforcement agency in California.  From 1942 to 1945, he was one of the U.S. Navy personnel responsible for the Security Room in Washington, D.C., of the Chief of U.S. Naval Operations Ernest King.  In the top-secret vault was an extensive file on Amelia Earhart dealing with pre-WW II U.S. Navy involvement and information picked up during the invasion of various Japanese held islands during World War II.

Harris recalls that the records were carefully boxed and sent to the U.S. Naval Supply Depot at Crane, Ind., toward the end of the war in 1945. Crane was and apparently still is the repository of top-secret material, including records of U.S. Naval code-breaking operations before and during the war.

To this writing, the records referred to by McKeon and Harris have not been found, but an effort to locate them continues.   A search for truth is underway in Japan today as well. Fukiko Aoki, one of the brightest young writers and investigative journalists in Japan, has for more than a year been seeking answers in Japanese archives and from former Imperial Japanese Naval Officers.

Gen. Graves B. Erskine, deputy commander of the V Amphibious Corps during the Battle of Saipan in 1944, told two prominent CBS radio people in 1966, "It was established that Earhart was on Saipan." Yet Graves' revealing statement wasn't mentioned in the Smithsonian article, and a similar statement to Fred Goerner by the great Adm. Chester W. Nimitz, the number one man in the Pacific Fleet for most of the war, was deprecated because Goerner was the "only source" for the admiral's revelation.

In November 1966, Gen. Graves B. Erskine, deputy commander of the V Amphibious Corps during the Battle of Saipan in 1944, told two professional associates of Fred Goerner, “It was established that Earhart was on Saipan.”

What do I believe now after 23 years of research, including 12 trips to Saipan and four to Majuro Atoll in the Marshalls?  Earhart and Noonan were cooperating with their government at the time of their disappearance, and there is strong testimony that an American man and woman, identified as fliers, were picked by Japanese military units somewhere and taken first to the Marshalls and then to Saipan. Just where the Electra landed is very much a matter of conjecture.  If the Japanese know, they have said nothing.

(Editor’s note: Once again Goerner, by neglecting to reference Thomas E. Devine’s account to him in 1963 during their Saipan visit, which he included in Search, revealed his contempt for Devine and his claim that he saw the Electra on Saipan on three occasions in July 1944, the final time in flames.  Devine said that before he left Saipan in August 1945, the remains of Amelia’s plane had been bulldozed into a huge hole underneath Aslito Airport, which is now Saipan International Airport, and there it remains to this day, along with untold tons of other war refuse, including Japanese planes destroyed during the Saipan invasion.)

If Earhart and Noonan were off course considerably to the north of Howland Island, they may have landed at Mili or one of the other islands in the southern Marshalls.  Many believe that theory.  If Amelia and Fred were blown south of their course because they did not receive the weather forecast predicting significant winds from the northeast, the Phoenix Islands surely would have been their alternate choice. Until the mystery reefs that lie between Howland and the Phoenix Islands are thoroughly searched and the lagoons of several of the islands are plumbed, the possibility the aircraft can be found remains.

Gen. Graves B. Erskine, USMC (Ret.) one of the U.S. Marine Corps’ most distinguished officers told CBS in a 1966 private interview, “We did learn that Earhart was on Saipan and that she died there.”

Gen. Alexander A. Vandegrift, USMC (Ret.), who commanded the US Marine Corps during the later stages of WW II the Pacific wrote to me on August 10, 1971, “It was substantiated that Miss Earhart met her death on Saipan.  The information was given to me directly by General Thomas Watson, who commanded the 2nd U.S. Marine Corps Division during the assault on Saipan in 1944.”

Saipan has many mysteries.  Much more questioning of the Saipanese people has produced stories of an American woman spy fromLos Angeleswho was executed in 1937.  Was that woman Amelia Earhart? Or was it another woman sent by American intelligence to ascertain Japanese activities in the mandated islands — a woman whose mission and fate have never been revealed by anyone?

I believe the full truth will be made public in the not distant future.  (End of “In Search of Amelia Earhart.”)

The only bestseller ever penned on the Earhart disappearance, "Search" sold over 400,000 copies and stayed on the New York Times bestseller list for six months. In September 1966, Time magazine’s scathing review, titled "Sinister Conspiracy,” set the original tone for what has become several generations of media aversion to the truth about Amelia’s death on Saipan.

The only bestseller ever penned on the Earhart disappearance, Search sold over 400,000 copies and stayed on the New York Times bestseller list for six months. In September 1966, Time magazine’s scathing review, titled “Sinister Conspiracy,” set the tone for what has become several generations of media aversion to the truth about Amelia’s death on Saipan.

After writing “In Search of Amelia Earhart,” Goerner lived 10 more years before losing his battle to cancer in September 1994, dying at 69, but he would never again write so lucidly and boldly about the Earhart disappearance.  In June 1977, Goerner appeared briefly in a muddled episode of the TV series In Search of . . . , narrated by Leonard Nimoy, and his final small screen appearance came in the popular Unsolved Mysteries program, with Robert Stack, where he shared time with Thomas E. Devine, T.C. “Buddy” Brennan and Robert E. Wallack in a 1990 presentation.  It would also be the last time both he and  Devine would have a national platform to share his Saipan experiences, though the Saipan veteran lived until 2003.

Fred Goerner remains the greatest of all Earhart researchers, despite his failings, which I’ve not been remiss in chronicling on this blog and in Truth at LastThe Search for Amelia Earhart was, by far, the most important Earhart disappearance book, but the fame and acclaim his 1966 bestseller brought was fleeting.  Goerner and his message became anathema soon after Time magazine’s damning review of Search; henceforth, the mere mention of Amelia Earhart and Saipan in the same sentence was seldom heard in American media.  To this day, anyone who dares say those words is, with few exceptions, banished to the land of fringe conspiracy theorists, where the truth, no matter how compelling, is deemed worthy only of ridicule and rejection.  In fact, it’s worse now than ever.

Someday the Earhart truth will be universally recognized and acknowledged, but nothing in our current or past government’s actions should lead anyone to believe that disclosure is likely to occur in our lifetimes.  The few who still care continue to work toward that eventuality, whenever it might come, and we never forget Fred Goerner and the other intrepid souls who blazed this lonely trail, lighting the way and making it just a little easier to tread.

General’s letters to Goerner reveal Earhart truth

Even casual observers of the Earhart saga are familiar with the statement allegedly made by Navy Adm. Chester W. Nimitz, then retired but still bound by classified information laws, to Fred Goerner in late March 1965, just before the radio newsman left San Francisco to interview Marine Commandant Gen. Wallace M. Greene at his Pentagon headquarters in Arlington, Va.  “Now that you’re going to Washington, Fred, I want to tell you Earhart and her navigator did go down in the Marshalls and were picked up by the Japanese,” Goerner claimed Nimitz told him.

Only the most cynical accused Goerner of fabricating Nimitz’s statement, while some ignored it completely, but we’ve had only Goerner’s word that Nimitz shared this blockbuster secret with him.  However, another iconic World War II hero, Gen. Alexander A. Vandegrift, commandant of the U.S. Marine Corps from 1944 to 1947, actually put a similar statement in writing — not once, but in two letters he wrote in response to the indefatigable Goerner, still hot on the Earhart case.

These letters, first reported in Amelia Earhart: The Truth at Lastare reproduced here for the first time.  Vandegrift’s first letter, of May 10, 1971, was typed in all upper case, while his second, of Aug. 10 1971, was handwritten, but otherwise they are unedited.   I do not have Goerner’s initial letter to Vandegrift, which prompted his response.

General Alexander A. Vandegrift, eighteenth commandant of the U.S. Marine Corps, confirmed Amelia Earhart’s death on Saipan in an August 1971 letter to Fred Goerner. Vandegrift wrote that he learned from Marine General Tommy Watson, who commanded the 2nd Marine Division during the assault on Saipan and died in 1966, that “Miss Earhart met her death on Saipan.” (U.S. Marine Corps photo.)

Gen. Alexander A. Vandegrift, eighteenth commandant of the U.S. Marine Corps, confirmed Amelia Earhart’s death on Saipan in an August 1971 letter to Fred Goerner.  Vandegrift wrote that he learned from Marine Gen. Tommy Watson, who commanded the 2nd Marine Division during the assault on Saipan and died in 1966, that “Miss Earhart met her death on Saipan.” 

10 May 1971

Frederick Allan Goerner
Twenty-Four Presidio Terrace
San Francisco, California 94118

My Dear Mr. Goerner,

In reply to your letter of 6 April, relative to the rumors in reference to the way Miss Earhart met her death, I’m sorry I can’t help you in any way.

I heard the rumor during the South Pacific campaign, particularly the one in Saipan, but when I tried to investigate I found nothing to substantiate the charges made.  I have no doubt that Miss Earhart met her death in that area because that has been substantiated.  But how and why I have no information.  I’m sorry that I can’t be of more help.

Sincerely Yours,

A.A. Vandegrift
General USMC (Ret.)

9 June 1971

A.A. Vandegrift
General, USMC (Ret.)
720 ELDORADO Lane
DELRAY BEACH, Florida 33444

Dear General Vandegrift

I was most grateful to receive your recent communication containing response to my questions concerning the fate of Miss Amelia Earhart.

As I wish to quote from your comments, I want to make absolutely sure that the implications of those comments is clearly defined and no false conclusions are reached.

You mentioned that you had received information which alleged that Miss Earhart had been on Saipan, and you added, “I have no doubt Miss Earhart met her death in that area because that has been substantiated.  But how and why I have no information.”

Did you mean that it had been substantiated that Miss Earhart had been on Saipan and had died on Saipan, but it was not determined how and why she died?

If that is the correct interpretation, it would be most helpful to know how it was substantiated that Miss Earhart had been on Saipan and had met her death there.  Were her remains recovered or was documentation to that fact uncovered?

I thank you very much for your gracious attention to this letter.  I shall look forward to your comments with tremendous interest.

With respect and admiration, I am,

Most Sincerely,

Frederick Allan Goerner
24 Presidio Terrace
San Francisco, California

P.S. For your convenience, I am enclosing a self-addressed, stamped envelope.

“General Tommy Watson, who commanded the 2nd Marine Division during the assault on Saipan and stayed on that island after the fall of Okinawa, on one of my seven visits of inspection of his division told me that it had been substantiated that Miss Earhart met her death on Saipan,” the handwritten letter states.

Maj. Gen. Thomas E. “Terrible Tommy”  Watson, 2nd Marine Division commander during the Saipan invasion, allegedly told Gen. Alexander A. Vandegrift, commandant of the Marine Corps, that “it had been substantiated that Miss Earhart met her death on Saipan.”  Watson died in 1966, Vandegrift in 1973.

720 Eldorado Lane
Delray Beach, Florida
10 August 1971

Frederick Goerner
24 Presidio Terrace
San Francisco, Calif.

Dear Mr. Goerner:

Please pardon my delay in answering your letter of June.  In the meantime, I have been in the hospital and have not felt too well since my return.

In writing to you, I did not realize that you wanted to quote my remarks about Miss Earhart and I would rather that you would not.

General Tommy Watson, who commanded the 2nd Marine Division during the assault on Saipan and stayed on that island after the fall of Okinawa, on one of my seven visits of inspection of his division told me that it had been substantiated that Miss Earhart met her death on Saipan.  That is the total knowledge that I have of this incident.

Having known General Watson many years, I naturally accept this information as being correct.  General Watson I’m sorry to say, died some years ago and therefore cannot be contacted.

I am sorry if my remarks misled you but I cannot add anything more to this report.

Most sincerely,

A.A. Vandegrift
General, USMC (Ret.)

Vandegrift’s Aug. 10, 1971 letter was written in longhand by an unknown party, possibly his second wife, Kathryn Henson Vandegrift, who was still alive at the time.  The general must have been ill at the time, as his signature was shaky and bore no resemblance to the rest of the document; he died two years later.  Like Nimitz and Gen. Graves Erskine, two other major flag officers who revealed the truth to Goerner in clandestine ways, the general must have wanted to encourage Goerner, though he was still sworn to silence in the top-secret case.

Vandegrift’s claimed source for his information, former Lt. Gen. Thomas E. Terrible TommyWatson, died in 1966, and this could be why Vandegrift shared the truth with Goerner as he did.  The letter could be technically considered hearsay, and he probably assumed it would afford him a level of protection against any ramifications if his disclosure became known.

Gen. Graves B. Erskine, deputy commander of the V Amphibious Corps during the Battle of Saipan in 1944, told two prominent CBS radio people in 1966, "It was established that Earhart was on Saipan." Yet Graves' revealing statement wasn't mentioned in the Smithsonian article, and a similar statement to Fred Goerner by the great Adm. Chester W. Nimitz, the number one man in the Pacific Fleet for most of the war, was deprecated because Goerner was the "only source" for the admiral's revelation.

Gen. Graves B. Erskine, deputy commander of the V Amphibious Corps during the Battle of Saipan in 1944, told two close associates of Fred Goerner in 1966, “It was established that Earhart was on Saipan.”

With a distinguished career that culminated in his selection as the Marine Corps’ first four-star general, who could possibly question Vandegrift’s credibility?  He was awarded the Medal of Honor and the Navy Cross for his actions at Guadalcanal, Tulagi and Gavutu in the Solomon Islands in 1942, honors that conferred upon its bearer the gravest moral responsibilities.  Undeniably, in that bygone era, long before the modern-day corruption that has stained even our esteemed Marine Corps, the word of a Medal of Honor recipient who also led the world’s greatest fighting force was as good as gold.  Moreover, Vandegrift had nothing tangible to gain from telling Goerner the truth, and he had no self-interested reason to do so.

Vandegrift’s claim that his “total knowledge” about Earhart’s death on Saipan was limited to the brief statement he attributed to Watson could not have been true.   A three-star general in July 1944, Vandegrift had been commandant of the Marine Corps since Jan. 1 of that year.  Watson, as commander of the 2nd Marine Division on Saipan—wherein Lt. Col. Wallace E. Greene performed as operations officer—was at the tip of the spear in the top-secret operation to destroy the Electra, charged with its successful execution by a chain of command that included Navy Secretary James V. Forrestal and beyond to the commander-in-chief, President Franklin D. Roosevelt.   

In the highly unlikely event that FDR’s orders to destroy the Electra had not passed through Vandegrift, he would have been fully briefed by Watson about the operation immediately upon their next meeting, if not sooner.  Goerner’s reply to Vandegrift’s August 1971 contained two pointed questions:

●Did General Watson communicate to you HOW it had been substantiated that Miss Earhart had met her death on Saipan?

●Did General Watson indicate whether or not the human remains of Miss Earhart or her navigator had been recovered?7

Goerner’s query was returned undated, with “Nohandwritten after each question, signed again by Vandegrift in a trembling hand.  Goerner’s file on  Vandegrift ends with a brief November 1971 note to Goerner, thanking him for sending a copy of  The Search for Amelia Earhart, wishing himevery success in the publication and sale of this book,and promising to have it read to him as soon as he returned from the hospital.  Vandegrift died on May 8, 1973.

Reineck’s 1997 letter to Bill Clinton one of many ignored by U.S. leaders through the years

When Fred Goerner’s bestseller, The Search for Amelia Earhart rocked the nation in 1966, selling over 400,000 copies in an age when many Americans actually read books, untold numbers of congressmen and senators from coast to coast were besieged by constituents demanding that they get to the bottom of the disappearance of Amelia Earhart.  Nothing happened.  (Boldface emphasis mine throughout.)

In 1968, Goerner appeared in Miami before a Republican platform subcommittee chaired by Kentucky Governor Louie Broady Nunn.  Calling his presentation “Crisis in Credibility—Truth in Government,” a title that perfectly describes the appalling corruption that so pervades our current ruling class, Goerner appealed to the members’ integrity and patriotism, and did his utmost to win them to the cause of securing justice for Amelia and Fred Noonan.  Nothing happened then, either.

Fred Goerner at KCBS San Francisco, circa 1966. (Courtesy Merla Zellerbach.)

Fred Goerner at KCBS San Francisco, circa 1966. (Courtesy Merla Zellerbach.)

Occasionally someone suggests that I should write to the president, or that they’ve written to their congressmen, to demand action in the ongoing Earhart travesty.  I tell them it’s a waste of time, based on what we know and all that’s gone before, but I never try to actually discourage these vain appeals to our rulers.  Those who care enough about the truth to actually sit down and write a letter are to be respected and applauded for their diligence, despite the fact that all their letters will be ignored. 

In 1997, well-known Earhart researcher Rollin Reineck thought he’d take a shot at it, and he sent the below missive to President Bill Clinton in hopes of effecting a miraculous breakthrough in the Earhart case.  Reineck could have saved a stamp, but then we wouldn’t have this letter to serve as a fine example of the sort of good-faith appeals to our nation’s leaders that continue to be ignored.

The President
The White House
Washington, DC 20500

8 June 1997

Subject: Public release of information relating to Amelia Earhart.

Dear Mr. President:

The second of July, this year, will mark the 60th anniversary of the disappearance of Amelia Earhart. This single episode remains the greatest unsolved air mystery of our time.

President William J. Clinton, circa 1997.

President William J. Clinton, circa 1997. After six decades of government suppression of the truth in the Earhart disappearance, can anyone imagine this president breaking the mold and revealing the facts about Amelia’s sad end on Saipan?

The issuance of your 17 April 1995 Executive Order (12958) declassifying all government documents that were 25 years old should have shed some light on this specific area of interest.  However, it has produced no results to this date.

From circumstantial evidence, most researchers feel they know the answer to this 60-year-old mystery, but they also feel that the HARD COPY OF FACTS are still sealed away in the files of the intelligence community in Washington, D.C.

Consequently, I am writing to ask you, as President of the United States, to issue another Executive Order.  This time directing that the various military and other intelligence agencies as well as the CIA immediately release — to the public — all materials in their files relating to the disappearance of Amelia Earhart so the world may finally know the truth.

Ms. Earhart was the heroine of her era.  She epitomized the ideals of women and American feminism, and is still an inspiration to all women today.  The cheers, accolades and outpouring of emotion received by another young lady who just completed emulating the Earhart around-the-world flight in the same type vintage airplane reaffirms the desire of the world to know the facts and the truth about the mysterious disappearance of Amelia Earhart.

I, and others like me, have been trying to piece together exactly what happened on that fateful day of 2 July 1937.  Personally, I have spent over 26 years — a third of my life — searching for the truth about this great and courageous lady of the air.  From this research, I have concluded:

Without presenting supporting evidence of any kind, the United States Government has always taken the position that Miss Earhart died at sea after ditching her airplane (attachment I).  Yet, in direct contradiction, we researchers have evidence, including statements made by noted Americans, as well as others, who were in a position to know the facts and the truth about the disappearance of Amelia Earhart.  For instance:

1. The late Henry Morgenthau Jr., Secretary of the Treasury for President Roosevelt, stated (attachment 2) in a telephone  conversation with Malvina Scheider, secretary for Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt, “Amelia Earhart absolutely disregarded all orders.  We have evidence that the thing is all over.  And, if we ever release the report of the Itasca (Coast Guard vessel standing off Howland Island) on Amelia Earhart, any reputation she’s got is gone.”

2. Mr. Carl Heine, a missionary who had lived in the Marshall Islands for 48 years (executed by the Japanese during the war), reported seeing a letter in the Jaluit Post Office on 27 November 1937, addressed to Amelia Earhart.  The address read: Amelia Earhart, Marshall Islands, Ratak Group, Maloelap Island, South Pacific Ocean (Attachment 3).  Mr. Heine felt it interesting that someone would be writing to Amelia Earhart in the Marshall Islands, and that the return address on the envelope was the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel, Hollywood, California.  It appears to be more than a coincidence that Ms. Earhart’s personal secretary lived at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel at that time.

The late Gen. Alexander A. Vandegrift, commandant of the U.S. Marine Corps during the World War II, told Fred Goerner in a 1971 letter that Amelia Earhart died on Saipan.

The late Gen. Alexander A. Vandegrift, commandant of the U.S. Marine Corps during the World War II, told Fred Goerner in a 1971 letter that Amelia Earhart died on Saipan.

3. The late five-star Fleet Admiral Chester W. Nimitz, Chief of Pacific Operations during WW II said, “She did go down in the Marshall Islands and was taken prisoner by the Japanese.”  This statement by Admiral Nimitz (attachment 4) can be seen today in the Earhart Room of the Admiral Nimitz Museum in Fredericksburg, Texas.

4. General Alexander Vandegrift, Commandant of the United States Marine Corps during WW II, said (attachment 5), “It was substantiated that Miss Earhart met her death on Saipan.  This information was given to me by General Tommy Watson, who commanded the Second Division during the assault on Saipan.”

5. Graves P. Erskine, who commanded the 5th U.S. Marine Corps Division at Iwo Jima and was on the staff of Gen. Holland “Howlin’ Mad” Smith during the invasion of Saipan and served in intelligence capabilities, said (attachment 5), “We did learn that Earhart was on Saipan and that she died there.”

6. Mr. Robert Reimers, native of the Marshall Islands, was born in 1909, when the Germans occupied the Islands.  He has spent his life as an entrepreneur and is the genius behind the Robert Reimer Enterprises Inc. of the Marshall Islands.  In a recent interview Mr. Reimers stated among other things, “It was widely known throughout the Islands by both the Japanese and the Marshallese that a Japanese fishing boat found Amelia Earhart, her navigator and the airplane near Mili Atoll.  They were brought to Jabor where one of our people (Billamon Amoron [sic] attachment 6) treated them.  They were then taken to Kwajalein, and from there to Truk and then to Saipan. There was no mystery . . . everybody knew it.”

7. In addition, there have been numerous reports by our GIs in the Marshall Islands and on Saipan of seeing photographs and other memorabilia of Ms. Earhart in the Marshalls and on Saipan.  Each and every one of these reports states that the found material related to Earhart was turned over to Officers in the field never to be seen again.

Marine General Graves B. Erskine, deputy commander of the V Amphibious Corps at the Battle of Saipan. In late 1966, Erskine told Jules Dundes, CBS West Coast vice president, and Dave McElhatton, a KCBS radio newsman, "It was established that Earhart was on Saipan. You'll have to dig the rest out for yourselves."

Marine General Graves B. Erskine, deputy commander of the V Amphibious Corps at the Battle of Saipan. In late 1966, Erskine told Jules Dundes, CBS West Coast vice president, and Dave McElhatton, a KCBS radio newsman, “It was established that Earhart was on Saipan.  You’ll have to dig the rest out for yourselves.”

8. After the liberation of the Japanese Weihsien Internment Camp, China, messages (attachment 7) were dispatched, dated 21 August 1945 to the next of kin, or other interested parties of the internees.  One of those messages was addressed and delivered to G.P. Putnam, 10042 Valley Spring Lane, North Hollywood, California.  The message read, “CAMP LIBERATED, ALL WELL, VOLUMES TO TELL, LOVE TO MOTHER.” G.P. Putnam was Amelia’s husband and 10042 Spring Valley Lane, North Hollywood, California, was where they lived as man and wife before she departed on her around the world flight.  Although the message was unsigned, there is little doubt as to who wrote the message. G.P. Putnam responded to the message 10 days later.

(Editor’s note: Reineck’s claim was later proven to be absolutely false by Earhart researchers Ron Bright and Patrick Gaston.  The telegram was actually sent from the Weihsien Camp by a man named Ahmad Kamal, a close personal friend of George Putnam.  Amelia Earhart was never at Weihsien, but this idea survives among some inhabitants of the Earhart fringe.)

Although I have worked with both the State and Treasury Departments, as well as the National Archives, I have not been able to obtain information to reconcile these various viewpoints and happenings on what should be a matter of fact.

Which version concerning Earhart’s disappearance are we to believe?  Why can’t the people of the United States be told the truth about this event that took place almost 60 years ago?  How could the release of the true facts of this historical event possibly affect the security of this country today, or have any other significant consequences?  What will it take to set the record straight and get the truth about the fate of Amelia Earhart?

In May 1938, the Honorable Hattie W. Caraway, Senator, of your State of Arkansas, said on the floor of the U.S. Senate: “Amelia Earhart was a courageous woman who was one of the 12 most notable women of the past 100 years.”  Senator Caraway went on to say that: She was a woman who symbolized, to a remarkable degree, the courage, the pioneering spirit and the broad achievements of American womanhood(Attachment 8).

Senator Hattie Ophelia Wyatt Caraway presides over the U.S. Senate in May 1932. Caraway, of Arkansas, was the first woman elected to serve a full term as a United States Senator.

Senator Hattie Ophelia Wyatt Caraway presides over the U.S. Senate in May 1932.  Caraway, of Arkansas, was the first woman elected to serve a full term as a United States Senator.

What Senator Caraway said on the floor of the Senate in 1938 was true then and it is true today.  Amelia Earhart was indeed a very courageous woman who served her country well in time of need.  It is only fitting that the truth now be known and that her name be placed in the HALL OF FAME with other great Americans so that her countrymen and women of today and tomorrow are made aware of her noble deeds. Mr. President, you can make it happen by directing the immediate release to the public of all CIA, Navy, Marine and Coast Guard and other intelligence files relating to Ms. Amelia Earhart.

Your early response to this letter would be appreciated.

Sincerely,

Rollin C. Reineck
Colonel USAF (Ret.)

Of course, Reineck received no response from Bill Clinton, not early nor at any other time.  Clinton likely never even saw Reineck’s letter, which was probably deposited into the nearest circular file by one of an army of lackeys paid exorbitant amounts of taxpayer dollars to screen White House mail and remove these little annoyances from the president.

This is the inevitable fate of any attempts by our good citizens to appeal to the better angels of those who keep our national secrets.  To begin with, these people have no better angels, as their spiritual protectors likely gave up on most of these lowlifes long ago.  Secondly, and most importantly, the Earhart case remains among Washington’s most precious sacred cows, a status that will almost certainly remain unchanged for decades to come.  Welcome to the Earhart saga.

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