Tag Archives: President Franklin D. Roosevelt

Amelia Earhart and the Morgenthau Connection: What did FDR’s treasury secretary really know?

The late Rollin C. Reineck was a war hero, retired Air Force colonel and a longtime member of the Amelia Earhart Society, whose passion for Earhart research often produced interesting, informative pieces, one of which you are about to read.  At other times, Reineck’s unrestrained enthusiasm for the spectacular and bizarre led him into areas populated only by Fred Goerner’s lunatic fringe, and these ill-conceived forays have somewhat tainted his reputation among Earhart researchers.

Reineck’s authorship of the dreadful Amelia Earhart Survived (Paragon Agency, 2003), his unsuccessful attempt to resurrect and validate the long-discredited Irene Bolam-as-Amelia Earhart myth, was unarguably his greatest blunder in the Earhart arena.  But that story is for another day.

Rollin C. Reineck, circa 1945, served as a B-29 navigator in both the European and Pacific theaters during World War II, earning the Distinguished Flying Cross, Air Medal and Bronze Star. A true patriot in every sense of the word, Reineck passed away in 2007, but left some very controversial writings about the disappearance of Amelia Earhart.

Rollin C. Reineck, circa 1945, served as a B-29 navigator in both the European and Pacific theaters during World War II, earning the Distinguished Flying Cross, Air Medal and Bronze Star.  A true patriot and war hero, Reineck passed away in 2007, leaving us some very controversial writings about the disappearance of Amelia Earhart.

During World War II, Reineck’s consistently outstanding performance as a B-29 navigator earned this brave patriot decorations such as the Distinguished Flying Cross, Air Medal and Bronze Star, as well as numerous commendations while flying missions in both the European and Pacific theaters, over the Mediterranean, Africa and against Japan from the recently captured Aslito Airfield on Saipan in early 1945.

Reineck  served for 30 years in his distinguished Air Force career, and for 15 years volunteered for the Red Cross whenever he could.  Rollin Reineck’s Amelia Earhart and the Morgenthau Connection” appeared in the January 1997 edition issue of the Amelia Earhart Society Newsletter, and as best as I can determine was written sometime in 1996.  Forthwith is his Morgenthau  piece, with additional comments to follow.

“Amelia Earhart and the Morgenthau Connection”

Why all the mystery about what happened to Amelia Earhart?  A good question without a good answer.  However, there was one person, more than anyone else, who probably knew the answer as to what happened on the fateful day in early July, 1937.  That one person was Henry Morgenthau Jr., the secretary of the treasury under President Franklin D. Roosevelt.

Henry Morgenthau was the son of a well-respected Jewish banker who had been the American Ambassador to Turkey.  Mr. Morgenthau Jr. first met Franklin Roosevelt at the outbreak of World War I.  He had bought a thousand acre farm near the Roosevelt estate at Hyde Park in upstate New York, and had become a gentleman farmer.  Over the years Henry became one of Franklin’s closest friends and his wife became an even closer friend to Eleanor.  When Roosevelt became the Governor of New York, Henry was brought into the state administration where he was very effective.

Subsequently, when Roosevelt moved to the White House, Henry followed.  Within a year after that he became Secretary of the Treasury, and one of Roosevelt’s most trusted friends.  He was often given extra departmental jobs which he accomplished with notable efficiency.  He gave the president unswerving loyalty and in return the president gave him power and influence as a trusted counselor.  Indeed, so close, the Morgenthaus often seemed to be members of the Roosevelts’ immediate family – a status greatly envied by Mr. Morgenthau’s colleagues.

In the dark days before World War II, when Japan was overrunning China, it was Morgenthau who arranged for a $100 million loan to the Chinese government for the FLYING TIGER Operations.  The Flying Tigers were a group of so-called volunteers (mostly Americans) that provided badly needed air support to the Chinese leader Generalissimo Chang Kai Shek in his war against the Japanese.

There are many researchers who feel, as I do, that Morgenthau held the financial as well as operational control over the Amelia Earhart-around-the-world adventure in 1937.  Although there is little documentation of the Morgenthau effort in support of Amelia Earhart, there is one file that sheds a great deal of light as to the extent of the Morgenthau involvement.

I am speaking here of the relatively recent discovery in President Roosevelt’s Hyde Park Library of a document relating to the Earhart episode.  This document is a recorded memo (Dictaphone) between the then Secretary of the Treasury, Henry Morgenthau Jr., and Mrs. Malvina Thompson Scheider, better known as “Tommy,” who was Mrs. Roosevelt’s personal secretary.

This document first appeared in a book about Amelia Earhart titled My Courageous Sister written by Muriel Morrissey, Amelia’s sister and Carol L. Osborne, noted Earhart researcher.  The book was published in 1987.  Since that time researchers have puzzled over the complete meaning of the memo’s contents.  Today, it ranks as one of the most compelling pieces of circumstantial evidence we have in our search for the truth about the mysterious disappearance of Amelia Earhart.  The memo is unclassified and was probably overlooked when they screened the Morgenthau files that were to be made public and put in the Hyde Park Library.  To date, it is the only document concerning Earhart in his archival material.

Henry Morgenthau Jr., FDR's treasury secretary and confidante, is captured in a familiar pose in this undated photo taken about the time of his conversation with Malvina Thompson "Tommy" Scheider. We can safely assume that Morgenthau knew everything that FDR knew about the fate of Amelia Earhart.

Henry Morgenthau Jr., FDR’s treasury secretary and confidante, is captured in a familiar pose in this undated photo taken about the time of his conversation with Malvina Thompson “Tommy” Scheider.  We can safely assume that Morgenthau knew everything that FDR knew about the fate of Amelia Earhart.

In the way of background, on April 26, 1938,  Paul Mantz (stunt pilot and technical advisor for Amelia Earhart), wrote to Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt and asked that she use her influence to obtain for him the “Official Report” of the Itasca relating to the flight of Amelia Earhart from Lae, New Guinea, to Howland Island.  Mr. Mantz explained that he was told by the Coast Guard that the official report could not be released except through certain channels.  In other words, the Roosevelt administration, for reasons unknown even today, had put a clamp on the release of information relating to the flight and disappearance of Amelia Earhart.

Mrs. Roosevelt sent the Mantz letter to Henry Morgenthau with a note that said, “Now here comes this letter. . . . I do not know whether you can send the man these documents.  Let me know whatever your decision may be.”  Mrs. Roosevelt signed the letter, “Affectionately, E.R.”  A clear inference can be drawn from Mrs. Roosevelt’s note that there was a veil of secrecy surrounding the Earhart disappearance and that Morgenthau would know what could and could not be released.  Whatever Morgenthau decided, Eleanor wanted to know.

On the morning of May 13, 1938, Morgenthau placed a telephone call to Eleanor Roosevelt.  Malvina Thompson Tommy Scheider,  Mrs. Roosevelt’s secretary, answered the phone.  The following is a direct quote of [Morgenthau’s side of the] conversation.

“Hello, Tommy (Malvina Scheider).  How are you?  This letter that Mrs. Roosevelt wrote me about trying to ge the report on Amelia Earhart.  Now, I’ve been given a verbal report.  If we’re going to release this, it’s just going to smear the  whole reputation of Amelia Earhart, and my . . . 

Yes, I mean if we give it to this one man we’ve got to make it public; we can’t let one man see it.  And if we ever release the report of the Itasca on Amelia Earhart, any reputation she’s got is gone, because – and I’d like to – I’d really like to return this to you. 

(Continuing) “Now.  I know what the Navy did, I know what the Itasca did.  And I know how Amelia Earhart absolutely disregarded all orders, and if we ever  release this thing, good-by Amelia Earhart’s reputation.  Now, really – because if we give the access to one, we have to give it to all.  And my advice is that – and if the President ever heard that somebody questioned that the Navy hadn’t made the proper search, after what those boys went through.  I think they searched, as I remember it, 50,000 square miles, and even one of those planes was out, and the boys just burnt themselves out physically and even other way searching for her.

And if – I mean I think he’d get terribly angry if somebody, because they just went the limit, and so did the Coast Guard.  And we have the report of all those wireless messages and everything else, what that woman – happened to her the last few minutes. I hope –  I’ve just got to never make it public.  I mean, O.K.  Well, still if she wants it, I’ll tell her.  I mean what happenedIt isn’t a very nice story.  Well, yes. There isn’t anything additional to something like that.  You think up a good one. Thank you.”  (Conversation ends.)

(To Chauncy) Just send it back.” 

Chauncy: Sure.” 

(Morgenthau) I mean we tried – people want us to search again those islands, after what we have gone through.  You (Gibbons) know the story, don’t you?

(Gibbons) “We have evidence that the thing is all over, sure. Terrible. It would be awful to make it public.

Looking at just the substantive words in the memo, here is what it says:

Now, I’ve been given a verbal report.” 

“If we’re going to release this, it’s just going to smear the reputation of Amelia Earhart.”

“If we give it  to this one man we’ve got to make it public.”

We can’t let one man see it.

“If we ever release the report of the Itasca on Amelia Earhart, any reputation she’s got is gone.”

“I know now Amelia Earhart disregarded all orders.”

“If we ever release this thing, good-bye Amelia Earhart’s reputation.”

If we give access to one, we have to give it to all.

We have the report of all those wireless messages and everything else.

“What that woman – happened to her the last few minutes.”

“I hope I’ve just got to never make it public.”

“If she wants it, I’ll tell her – I mean what happened.”

“It isn’t a very nice story.”

There isn’t anything additional to something like that.

People want us to search again those islands.

“We have evidence that the thing is all over, sure. Terrible.”  (Gibbons)

“It would be awful to make it public.” (Gibbons)

Eleanor Roosevelt, Malvina Thompson Scheider and Edith Helm, Washington, D.C. 1941.

Eleanor Roosevelt, Malvina Thompson Scheider and Edith Helm, Washington, D.C. 1941.

On July 5, 1938, Mr. Morgenthau sent a memo to Eleanor Roosevelt and said, “We have found it possible to send Mr. Mantz a copy of the log of the ITASCA, which I think will supply him all the data he asked for in his letter.”  Mr. Morgenthau is telling Eleanor Roosevelt that he has made the radio log palatable for public consumption.  It is obvious that he did this by deleting or changing portions of the log that would be damaging to Earhart’s reputation and by deleting portions of the log that may have told what ORDERS Earhart has disregarded.

From the recorded conversation, it is more than obvious that there were additional wireless messages and related information released to Mr. Morgenthau, but never released to the public.  For instance, there is nothing at all in the log of the Itasca that has been released that would ruin her reputation.”  Or what orders she disregarded.  Nor is there anything in the released log that would indicate what happened to her in the last few minutes.  Or why, It isn’t a very nice story.  The log of the Itasca has obviously been expurgated and changed.

The suspect portion of the radio log that was released is the void of communications that runs from 0800 hours to 0840 hours (Howland Island Time).  This void comes only 20 minutes after Earhart declared that her fuel was running low.  It would seem to me, as an experienced Air Force pilot with a great deal of over water time, that the 40 minute void should have been filled with pleas for help, position reports and an indication of intentions.  Perhaps it was.  We may never know.

For several years I have tried to get additional information from various sources which would supplement the Morgenthau memo.  I felt that there should be other information in the Morgenthau files that would add more insight relating to what he might have known and have recorded.  Toward this goal, Senator [Daniel Kahikina] Akaka of Hawaii on March of 1991, signed a letter, that I had prepared, to Mr. Nicholas F. Brody, Secretary of the Treasury under President Bush.  The letter reads in part as follows:

Colonel Reineck advised me that other researchers who are colleagues of his, namely Mr. Merrill D. Magley (deceased) and Mr. John F. Luttrell, have tried through the normal Freedom of Information Act channels to obtain additional information from your department without success.  This is true even though they had pinpointed box containers T-33A and T-33B in the basement of the Treasury Department behind a locked metal wire cage as the Henry Morgenthau Jr. files for 1937 and 1938.  One of your personnel, Ms. Karen Cameron described the material as relating to Amelia Earhart, but denied access on the basis of it being classified Top Secret.

In March 1991, Senator Akaka (D-Hawaii) signed a letter written by Rollin Reineck to the , Secretary of the Treasury under President Bush, requesting that all classified material relative to the Earhart disappearance be released. Of course nothing more than the original Itasca logs was ever forthcoming from the U.S. government, then or ever.

In March 1991, Senator Daniel  Akaka (D-Hawaii) signed a letter written by Rollin Reineck to the Secretary of the Treasury under President George H.W. Bush, requesting that all classified material relative to the Earhart disappearance be released.  Nothing more helpful than the original Itasca logs was ever forthcoming from the U.S. government, then or ever.

I would like to request that your Department retrieve from your files, wherever they may be, all the classified information concerning Miss Earhart’s last flight.  When this is assembled, please contact my office so that I can make arrangements for its review.

(Editor’s note:  Senator Akaka’s effort was met with the typical government stonewalling that has characterized virtually all efforts to penetrate the airtight national security apparatus that surrounds and protects the truth in the Earhart case.  In one of the more cogent sections of Amelia Earhart Survived [p. 152-153], Reineck briefly discussed the Treasury Department’s response to Akaka’s formal request:

This letter stayed on Secretary Brady’s desk for ten days without any apparent action.  He then sent a memo to Senator Akaka, that said in effect, the Morgenthau files have been sent to the National Archives.  This had the impact of putting a tree in the middle of a forest for safe keeping.  It worked; we have never been able to find the Morgenthau files.  Why Secretary Brady was unwilling to work with Senator Akaka is unknown.  It is just one more example of the government’s refusal to cooperate in any way in trying to find an answer to the question of what happened to Amelia Earhart. End of Editor’s note.)

In September of this year (1996), I sent a letter to the Commandant of the Coast Guard and requested a copy of the unexpurgated, official report, including the radio log of the Coast Guard cutter Itasca as it related to the flight of Amelia Earhart on 2 July 1937.  I cited the Presidential Directive #12958, dated 17 April 1995, concerning the automatic declassification of documents that are more than 25 years old, as authority.  The Coast Guard Commandant advised me that all documents relating to that event were in the National Archives.

With the name of a contact for Coast Guard material in the National Archives, I again requested the original, unexpurgated log of the Itasca. Again I was told that no such document exists in their files. However, they did send me a copy of an index of material that they had relating to Earhart and the Coast Guard Cutter Itasca. Although much of the information in the index is familiar, I did send for some documents that may offer some new light.

Why all the mystery about what happened to Amelia Earhart? It is my judgment Morgenthau knew what happened to Amelia Earhart from “a verbal report and all those wireless messages and everything else.”  But, he put a cap on the release of all information about her shortly after she disappeared.  I believe he took that action to protect the reputation of Amelia Earhart from that day forward so that people of the world would remember her as a beautiful and courageous young lady who was willing to challenge the concept of a man’s world and would live on as a legend for all to love and admire.

On January 6, 1935, Amelia Earhart planted a Banyan tree in Hilo, Hawaii. (Earhart was in Hawaii preparing for her flight to Oakland.)  On August 12, 1937, Secretary of the Treasury for President Franklin Roosevelt, Henry Morgenthau, Jr., planted a Banyan tree next to the Earhart tree.  They are there today on Banyan Tree Drive, Hilo, Hawaii.  (End of “Amelia Earhart and the Morgenthau Connection.”)

Rollin Reineck’s longtime devotion to the Earhart case notwithstanding, I can’t agree with all his conclusions relative to Henry Morgenthau’s phone conversation with Malvina Thompson “Tommy” Scheider.  Plenty of room exists for varying interpretations of his statements, and without having Mrs. Scheider’s side of it, we can never know for sure exactly what these two were really saying.

Amelia Earhart planted this Banyan tree on Jan. 6, 1935 while she enjoyed a sightseeing flight to Maui. Five days after planting the tree, Earhart he took off from Wheeler Field, Oahu in her Lockheed Vega, nicknamed “old Bessie, the fire horse.” In this this solo flight from Hawaii to California, Earhart became the first person to solo from Hawaii to California. The flight covered 2,408 miles and took 18 hours,16 minutes, and with it, she also became the first person to solo across both oceans, as she had previously flown the Atlantic Ocean in 1932.

Amelia Earhart planted this Banyan tree on Jan. 6, 1935 while she enjoyed a sightseeing flight to Maui. Five days after planting the tree, Earhart he took off from Wheeler Field, Oahu in her Lockheed Vega, nicknamed “old Bessie, the fire horse.”  In this this solo flight from Hawaii to California, Earhart became the first person to solo from Hawaii to California.  The flight covered 2,408 miles and took 18 hours, 16 minutes, and with it, she also became the first person to solo across both oceans, as she had previously flown the Atlantic Ocean in 1932.

Though much about this “Dictaphone” recording remains unknown, I have no doubts about two points relative to it.  First, despite the treasury secretary’s thrice-repeated concern about the “reputation of Amelia Earhart” and how he wanted to protect it, his concern was solely focused on the reputation of his boss, FDR, and how public knowledge of the truth in the Earhart matter would affect his political future.  Secondly, by May 1938 if not much earlier, Morgenthau was fully aware of Earhart’s captivity on Saipan and her possible death in Japanese hands.  Based on Morgenthau’s comments to Scheider, many of which make little or no sense without Scheider’s replies, it’s difficult to believe that she had been brought into the small circle of those who knew all of the ghastly truth, which would have been so deadly to the Roosevelt administration’s future, though of course she may have been.  How can we know?

Perhaps the most important question arising from the Morgenthau-Scheider phone conversation is this: What did Morgenthau mean when he said, “Amelia Earhart absolutely disregarded all orders”?  Whose orders?  To do what?  And how did she disregard them?  Some have attempted to explain Morgenthau’s reference to Earhart’s disregard for orders as her failure to follow the planned radio schedule and protocols between her and Itasca, but if that was the case, why all the secrecy on Morgenthau’s part?

And what are we to make of Morgenthau’s reference to “all those wireless messages”?  Is he referring to some or all of the alleged “post-loss” radio messages that some believe came from Earhart in her downed Electra?

In his aforementioned book, Amelia Earhart Survived, Reineck continued his discussion of the Morgenthau transcript, and makes several huge assumptions about Earhart’s actions during her flight from Lae to Howland Island.  Reineck tells us, without citing any sources, that be believes Earhartdisregarded all ordersby breaking radio silence and telling Itasca that “she was turning north,” in direct contravention of her prearranged PLAN B, to be initiated if she failed to locate Howland Island.  Although the idea that Earhart may have turned northward toward Mili Atoll, where she did indeed land, is very plausible, Reineck’s  concoction — out of thin air — of PLAN B, and his convoluted, bizarre discussion in arriving at this conclusion would leave most readers completely dazed and confused.

Similarly, Reineck cites no sources for his assertion that “it is a documented fact that he [Morgenthau] did travel from Washington, D.C. to Hawaii and did have a private discussion with Commander  Thompson . . .  on 29 July 1937.”  After he points out that such a trip would have taken about 10 days at that time, Reineck asks what could be so terribly important that a top level Presidential cabinet officer had to be away from his duties in Washington for almost a month, to personally see the Commander of the Itasca.  Reineck makes Morgenthau’s Hawaii trip seem quite sinister and conspiratorial, and alleges that,as a cover story, [Morgenthau] said that this trip to Hawaii was a vacation for him and his wife.  Again, Reineck offered no sources for his contentions, some of which I included in my discussion of the Morgenthau matter in Amelia Earhart: The Truth at Last without noticing that Reineck had not sourced his Morgenthau claims.

As I often do these days when I’m stuck or need expert advice on an Earhart question, I asked researcher Les Kinney for this take on the Morgenthau transcript and Rollin Reineck’s ideas about it.  “Now, regarding the sinister overtones of Morgenthau’s travel to Hawaii,” Kinney wrote in an email,  “it’s all bunk.  Morgenthau had been planning a vacation to Hawaii for some time.  His family went along and he stayed there for about a month.  FDR sends him a note and says I am glad you are enjoying yourself, etc.  Morgenthau talks of various things he and his family were doing while on vacation (I have all this).

“There is no mention of official business,” Kinney continued.  “In other words, Morgenthau was on a planned vacation that had been pre-arranged.  There was nothing sinister about the trip as Reineck suggestsMorgenthau certainly did not travel to Hawaii just to interview Thompson.  Because Morgenthau was head of the Treasury Department, and the Coast Guard was in the Treasury Department, no doubt he might have paid a visit to the CO of the Coast Guard District in Honolulu.  Did Morgenthau specifically wish to meet privately with Thompson?  I don’t know, and I have searched long and hard to find a record of this meeting to no avail. 

Finally, I don’t share Reineck’s  certainty that “Mr. Morgenthau is telling Eleanor Roosevelt that he has made the radio log palatable for public consumption . . . by deleting or changing portions of the log that would be damaging to Earhart’s reputation and by deleting portions of the log that may have told what ORDERS Earhart has disregarded.”  Although Morgenthau did imply this might have occurred in his memo to Eleanor, does any other credible evidence exist that supports Reineck’s belief that the original logs of the Itasca were “expurgated or changed” by government censors?  

Itasca Chief Radioman Leo Bellarts kept the first three pages of the original flight log until his death in 1974, and these pages reflect the same 40-minute gap in communications from Earhart.  Neither Bellarts nor anyone else in the radio room ever reported that the cutter’s radio logs had been tampered with.  Two other logs, the Itasca deck log and Howland Island Detachment radio log, have long been questioned, but for reasons far less ominous than upper-echelon censorship of information that would have revealed Earhart’s actions during her alleged final moments.

Again, without Malvina Scheider’s half of her conversation with Henry Morgenthau to fill in the blanks, we can only continue to speculate about why Morgenthau said, “It isn’t a very nice story,or what Stephen B. Gibbons, assistant treasury secretary, meant when he told his boss, “We have evidence that the thing is all over, sure. Terrible. It would be awful to make it public.

Your comments are welcomed.

A close look at Paul Rafford’s “Earhart Deception”

Today we continue our examination of Paul Rafford Jr.’s writings about what might have  have transpired during the last hours of Amelia Earhart’s alleged approachto Howland Island, as well as other intriguing and controversial ideas he advanced over the years following his retirement from the NASA’s Manned Space Program in 1988.  (Boldface emphasis mine throughout; italics Rafford’s.)

On Dec. 7, 1991 Paul Rafford was putting the finishing touches on his new piece, “The Amelia Earhart Radio Deception,” which appeared in the March 1992 issue of the Amelia Earhart Society Newsletter.  “The theory presented herein represents a major digression from the commonly held belief that Earhart was in the vicinity of Howland Island when her voice was last heard on the air, he wrote.  “It proposes that the radio calls intercepted by the Itasca were actually recorded by Earhart before she left the United States, to be played back at the appropriate time later on by another airplane.

Fifteen years later, Paul presented his evolved theory of an Earhart radio deception as an entire chapter, or “Section 7,” as he called it, in his 2006 book Amelia Earhart’s Radio.  That’s our focus for this post — Section 7, edited only for style and consistency, with a few photos added for your reading enjoyment.

“The Earhart Radio Deception”

The Earhart deception was designed to convince the world that she and Noonan were unable to locate Howland either visually or by radio; Itasca Radioman Bill Galten was not convinced. In 1942, after he came to work for Pan Am, he expressed his professional opinion to me, “Paul, that woman never intended to land on Howland!”

She had failed to answer any of his more than fifty calls or even tell him what frequency she was listening to. But to make sure, he called her on all his frequencies.  Her method of operating was to suddenly come on the air without a call-up, deliver a brief message and be off, all within a few seconds.  In fact, she was so brief that the Howland direction finder never had a chance to get a bearing.  Also, every one of her transmissions was such that it could have been recorded well beforehand by a sound-alike actress.  Even the Navy’s official report states, “Communication was never really established.”

Itasca heard approximately nine radio transmissions on 3105 kHz.  They were divided into two groups separated by an hour.  Messages in the first group, transmitted around sunrise or earlier, were weak or almost inaudible.  The second group were loud and clear as though the plane was nearby.  Chief Radioman Leo Bellarts later declared he felt that if he stepped out on deck he would hear the Electra’s engines. 

Paul Rafford Jr., now 95, the elder statesman of Earhart researchers. As a Pan Am radio flight officer from 1940 to 1946, Rafford is uniquely qualified as an expert in Earhart-era radio capabilities.

Paul Rafford Jr., 95, the elder statesman of Earhart researchers. As a Pan Am radio flight officer from 1940 to 1946, Rafford flew with many people who knew Fred Noonan, Amelia’s navigator during her last flight, and he is uniquely qualified as an expert in Earhart-era radio operational capabilities.

The above suggests that the two groups were transmitted from different locations.  The first group could have been sent from Canton Island where the Navy had set up a station the month before.  The second group could have been sent from a nearby ship or Baker Island.  The system worked well and the deception was not detected aboard Itasca or by later investigators.  However, there is an important clue that indicates the transmissions were not “live.”

Listeners noted that there was a change in the voice pitch between the earlier transmissions and the final transmissions.  Those near Howland were higher pitched.  They presumed Earhart was getting desperate.  But the recording and playback machines of the mid-1930’s did not have the stability of modern equipment.  As a result, the Howland area recordings were inadvertently played back at a higher speed than those from Canton. This made the diction sound more hurried.  But listeners passed it off as simply proving that Earhart was becoming increasingly nervous at not finding Howland.

In addition to her unorthodox operating procedures, Earhart’s sound-alike asked for 7500 kHz. to use with her direction finder.  But this frequency cannot be used with airborne direction finders.  When she failed to get bearings she should have switched to 500 kHz, where Itasca was already sending for her.  After 45 minutes of silence, during which Itasca called her frequently, she finally came back on the air.

However, it was only to announce that she was on the line of position 157-337 and would switch to 6210 kHz.  Itasca never heard her again and the search began. Here are two possible scenarios to explain why Earhart never reached Howland.

Scenario No. 1

Earhart and Noonan were following their announced flight plan from Lae to Howland when he became incapacitated. In her ignorance about radio and navigation, she was unable to get in contact with Itasca or take bearings on the ship. Finally, she simply ran out of gas and fell in the ocean.

The flaw with this scenario is that it doesn’t jibe with published accounts of Earhart’s radio expertise. For example, in Last Flight she describes flying along the routes of the Federal Airways System.  She had no trouble communicating with the government radio stations and tuning in their navigation aids.

Scenario No. 2

We’ll never know when Earhart lost faith in Noonan’s navigation but the first indication was during their arrival over Africa after crossing the South Atlantic.  She failed to follow his instructions and ended up landing at St. Louis, 168 miles north of Dakar.

After leaving Lae, she could have navigated visually by using the islands below as check points.  But her Nukumanu Islands sighting is the only position report to be found in the records. After over flying them at sunset, she signed off on 6210 kHz. with Harry Balfour at Lae, and Alan Vagg at nearby Bulolo.  Then, she could have turned toward Nauru, 525 miles east-northeast.  She had received a message the day before that it’s giant lights, used for mining guano at night, would be turned on for her.  Later, listeners on the island heard her say on 3105 kHz. that she had their lights in sight.

Had she been following a direct Lae-to-Howland track, she would have been far too south to see them.  There were only four airfields in that part of the Pacific that could have accommodated Earhart’s plane.  They were 1) Lae 2) Howland 3) Rabaul on New Britain and 4) Roi Namur in the Marshalls.  But Roi Namur was the only one Earhart could reach without Noonan’s help.

After passing Nauru, Earhart could have headed for Jaluit in the Japanese-occupied Marshalls. She could have picked up its high-powered broadcast station and homed in on it after sunrise.  Noonan should have known about the station because Pan Am on Wake Island used it to calibrate their own direction finder.  Then, after overheading the station she could use a bearing from it to find the only land-plane airport in the Marshalls, Roi Namur.  But would she have been so eager to land there had she known the Japanese were about to go to war with China?

 Ten points to the Earhart Radio Deception:  

– She was quick to reject Pan Am’s offer to track her across the Pacific with its direction finding network.

– She told Harry Balfour that neither she nor Noonan knew morse code.

– She signed off with Harry Balfour at sunset on July 2nd, even though he offered to stay in contact with her until she had established communication with Itasca.

– She never replied to any of Itasca’s numerous calls, done so on all of its frequencies.

– She never announced to the Itasca what frequency she was listening to.

– She never called up the Itasca before she transmitted a message.

– She never stayed on the air long enough for the Howland direction finder to try and get a bearing; never more than seven or eight seconds.

– She requested 7500 kHz from Itasca for bearings, even though her direction finder had been calibrated in the 500 to 600 kHz band.

– She never attempted contact with Itasca after she tuned in on 7500.

– She made no further attempt to contact Itasca, or ask the ship for another direction finding frequency.

Another look at the original flight plan that targeted Howland Island, the "line of position" of 157-337 Amelia reported in her final message, and the close proximity of Baker Island, just southeast of Howland, as well as the Phoenix Group, farther to the southeast. which includes Canton Island, as well as Nikumaroro, formely known as Gardner Island, of popular renown.

Another look at the original flight plan that targeted Howland Island, the “line of position” of 157-337 Amelia reported in her final message, and the close proximity of Baker Island, just southeast of Howland, as well as the Phoenix Group, farther to the southeast. which includes Canton Island, as well as Nikumaroro, formerly known as Gardner Island, of popular renown.

Although we have no absolute proof that the flyers were Earhart and Noonan, thru the years investigators have turned up undeniable evidence that two Caucasians did land in the Marshalls before World War II.

One theory is that Earhart was supposed to secretly land on Canton and wait to be picked up.  In early June, the U.S. Navy had hosted a solar eclipse expedition on Canton and left behind a radio station and personnel.  They could have taken care of the flyers until the Navy was ready to find them. Under the guise of looking for Earhart, our Navy would have an excuse to make a survey of the mid-Pacific islands in preparation for World War II.  Believe it or not, their navigators were working with outdated charts based on early 19th century whaling ship reports. When the survey was finished, she and Noonan could be found.

But suppose she had panicked at the idea of flying nearly 3,000 miles while depending on Noonan’s navigation?  She had already missed Dakar by ignoring his order to change course.  Lacking faith in his navigation, there was only one landing field in the mid-Pacific that she could reach by herself using her radio direction finder – Roi Namur.  But, it was in the Japanese held Marshalls.  After passing abeam Nauru, she could reach it by tuning in the Jabor broadcasting station on Jaluit that operated from early morning until late at night.  In fact, the Pan Am direction finder at Wake used it to calibrate their own direction finder.  After over-heading Jabor, she could follow a bearing from the station to reach Roi Namur.

The flyers had passed Nauru before midnight and Jabor was only 420 miles farther.  With sunset still hours away, they would have to slow to their minimum air speed and circle until daylight.  But fate intervened and they never landed at Roi Namur.

After delivering my Earhart speech at a Christmas gathering, a man came up to me and introduced himself. During the 1990’s he had been an Air Force civilian worker on Kwajalein. His work was at Roi Namur so he commuted daily by air. One noon he was walking about the island when he met a friendly old Marshallese who spoke good English. He had come back to visit his boyhood home.  My friend asked him if he had ever seen any white people on Roi before World War II. To his surprise the old man said, “Yes!” and related his story.  When he was a young boy he had seen two white people being loaded aboard an airplane and flown away.

One of the facts that tends to support Scenario No. 2 was the comment made by Secretary of the Interior Henry Morgenthau, Jr. to his colleagues that slipped out from under the veil of government secrecy: “She disobeyed all orders!”  Morgenthau was recorded as saying in a telephone conversation.  What orders could a private civilian have disobeyed that would upset a cabinet officer?

 Two men who knew plenty more than they ever revealed about the fate of Amelia Earhart: Secretary of the Interior Henry Mogenthau, Jr. (left) and President Franklin D. Roosevelt, in 1934. Neither man ever revealed his knowledge or was called to account for his role in the Earhart disappearance, her death on Saipan or the subsequent cover-up that continues to this day.

Two men who knew far more than they ever revealed about the fate of Amelia Earhart: Secretary of the Interior Henry Morgenthau, Jr. (left) and President Franklin D. Roosevelt, in 1934.  Neither was ever called to account for his role in the Earhart disappearance, her death on Saipan or the subsequent cover-up that continues to this day.

With regard to landing on Howland, Itasca Chief Radio Officer Leo Bellarts remarked to Fred Goerner that although Earhart might get down OK, he didn’t see how she could ever take off through the thousands of nesting gooney birds. Yau Fai Lum wrote me that even dynamite failed to scatter them.  He had gone aboard Itasca to get “a home cooked meal” when he heard a terrific boom! Looking back at the island he saw a mass of gooney birds suddenly become airborne.  “They fluttered around for ten or fifteen seconds before settling down again,” Yau wrote.  Air Corps Lt. Daniel Cooper advised his headquarters of the bird problem several days before Earhart’s arrival. But it had already been noted several months before during the airfield’s construction.  Why did the “powers-that-be” not seem to be concerned about it?

Nevertheless, two airplanes actually did land on Howland, both during World War II.  The first, based at nearby Baker, had engine trouble and was forced to use the Howland runways.  The second carried a repair crew. Both planes eventually returned to Baker.

The Search

Here is the situation that emerges as we put the pieces together.  First, Earhart was not on an espionage mission per se.  There were government facilities, including ships, planes and professionals, who were much better equipped for spying than private individuals.  However, we did need a good look at the Central Pacific before the outbreak of World War II.  Like the Axis Powers in Europe, the Japanese were planning a war to conquer and dominate the Far East.

America was ill-prepared for a war in the Pacific.  During the Earhart search our fleet was still operating with charts prepared by whaling captains a century before.  We needed to get ready for war – and soon!  Looking for America’s sweetheart would be an excellent excuse to bring those charts up to date, much quicker than depending upon individual ships and reconnaissance planes.

However, the Administration was faced with a problem.  Not only were we just emerging from the Great Depression while still dealing with its problems, but to many isolationists Europe and its war clouds were a ten-day ocean trip away. Japan was even further.  A popular song of the era expressed the feelings of many, “Oh the weather outside is frightful.  But here inside it’s delightful.  Let it snow! Let it snow! Let it snow!”

Also, George Washington’s comment in his farewell address was widely quoted: “Beware of foreign entanglements!”  Privately, our government realized the need to be prepared to go to war in the Pacific. But although we couldn’t openly send a fleet to survey the area without raising extreme objections, we could send a fleet to look for Earhart.  Even the isolationists would cry, Go find our Amelia!  Meanwhile, under the pretense of looking for Earhart our Navy would update its charts and exercise the otherwise depression idled Pacific fleet.  (End of “The Earhart Radio Deception” chapter.)

In his 1991 article I cited at the beginning of this post, presented in a question-and-answer format with Bill Prymak, Paul goes into far more detail in describing the covert operation he envisioned, as well as the logistics he believes were employed to facilitate it.  Again, he begins by  stating he believes Amelia never intended to land on Howland Island, citing Itasca Radioman Bill Galten’s well-known statement to him that Amelia”never intended to land on Howland.”

Pointing to the widely accepted idea that two-way communication between Amelia and Itasca was never established, Paul suggested that “all of the transmissions received by the ship could have been recorded weeks beforehand for playback by another plane.  It could just as well have been a [Consolidated] PBY Catalina [flying boat] flying out of Canton Island.”

In my next post, we’ll delve further into Paul’s Earhart radio deception theory, as well as take a look at his unique and equally intriguing suggestion that the Earhart Electra was switched for another plane prior to their June 2, 1937 Miami takeoff.  Much more to come.

 

June 30, 2012: A new beginning

Amelia Earhart: The Truth at Last, was born in late June 2007, when I was informed that the second edition of my first book, With Our Own Eyes (2002), which reflected a solid year of work and 100 new pages of content, would not be published.  No apology or coherent reason was given by the publisher for her sudden decision to dump my work, and I was left flat to ponder the vicissitudes of the cold world of publishing. 

At that moment I was nearly disconsolate, but a wise friend who knew better than I how to deal with such a vicious blow, Major Glenn MacDonald, editor in chief of MilitaryCorruption.com, told me that someday I would see that she was doing me a favor, because instead of quitting, I would write a completely new book.

The writing and research took about two-and-a-half years, followed by two years of rejections, first by agents, then by publishers.  The resistance to the manuscript in the marketplace was very nearly overwhelming. Finally, in the summer of 2011, Larry Knorr of Sunbury Press, in Camp Hill, Penn., after a quick skim of the manuscript, told me, “We want to jump on this.” Larry said he was distant cousin of Amelia Earhart, an extra motivator that sealed the deal.

Truth at Last is not merely a book about Amelia Earhart, one of hundreds of such tomes.  The idea for Truth at Last came five years ago, but the book is the result of 24 years of research, study, writing, re-writing and refining.  Armed with the findings of prominent Earhart researchers such as Fred Goerner, Thomas E. Devine, Bill Prymak and many others, Truth at Last presents an ironclad case for the fact of Amelia Earhart and Fred Noonan’s presence and deaths on Saipan in the weeks, months and possibly years after their disappearance on July 2, 1937. 

This is not a “crackpot theory” advanced only by wing nuts and conspiracy theorists, as the establishment historians and their media confederates love to characterize it, but an irrefutable fact that must eventually be acknowledged by our government and accepted by those who write the history books.

The so-called mainstream media will resist acknowledging the presence of this book as long as possible. Only if forced to deal with its compelling argumentation and irrefutable logic will they even admit its existence, and then the smears will begin.  Most find this concept, that the American establishment detests the truth in the Earhart matter, difficult to accept and understand, but many years of learning the hard way have left no doubt in this writer’s mind. 

Finding a good publisher like Sunbury Press was only half the battle in this cause, the easy half, as difficult as it seemed for so many years.  Now, we must convince the rest of the world that we’re right about what happened to Amelia and Fred.  As I explain and clearly illustrate in Truth at Last, the truth in the Earhart case is a sacred cow in Washington, political poison since the presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt, and this particular sacred cow has been successfully protected for 75 years.

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